C.  Health Effects of Microwaves, including Cell Phones and Cell Towers, and Electromagnetic Pollution and Non-Ionizing Radiation


I.  Lai Henry, Comet Assay and Single-Strand and Double-Strand Breakage Caused by Non-Ionizing Radiation


III. Hazards of Microwave Radiation Caused by PCS Cellular Phone Towers.. P.3-

IV. Mobile Phone Safety? Children Are at an Even Greater Risk than Adults. P.8-

"Hot Spots" - Radiation Energy Absorption from a Cell Phone Is Twice as Great inside the Brain as outside the Skull (200 times greater than expected); Radiofrequency Energy Can Damage Brain Cells in a Fraction of a Second. P.9-

The head as an antenna and brain tissue as a radio receiver. P. 11-

Microwave radiation induces perception of sound by direct penetration into the brain even perceived by deaf persons. P. 11-

Cellular Phones Are Exempt from Safety Standards. P.13-

Radiation from Cell Phones Causes Breakage in DNA Strands. P.15-

Human Cells Amplify Wireless Phone Radiation. P. 15-

The Radiation from Cell Phones is Genotoxic. P.16-

Cell Phones: Communications for the 21st Century or a Road to Medical Armageddon? P.20-

Children Are More Vulnerable to Radiation and Cell Phones. P. 22-

Mobile phones confirmed as a cause of earlier Alzheimer's onset, and damage to memory and learning ability in mammals. P. 23-

V. International Standards for Cell Phone Radiofrequency/Microwave Radiation: The U.S. Standard is 5800 times greater than the Standard of Salzburg, Austria. P. 25-

VI. Cell Phone Antennae on or near School Buildings or Property: Verizon 60' Monopole Proposed for 1201 S. Sunset. A Child's Brain Is Much More Easily Penetrated by Radiation. P. 27-

VII. PCS 40 Ft. Microwave Monopole Cell TowerBase Station Proposed for 9th and Baker St.. P. 30-

VIII. Legislation and Case Law. P. 30-

IX. Additional Hazards. P. 32-

X. Devaluation of Property. P. 32 -

XI. Absentee Landlord. P. 34-

XII. Insurance Issues. P. 35-

XIII. Teleports. P. 35-

XIV. Necessary Technical Inclusions Which Are ABSENT from the Providers' Applications. P. 36-

XV. Adequate Coverage. P. 37-

XVI. Necessary Explanations of a Need for a New Tower Included with Analyses of Existing Facilities and Other Possible Sites Which AreABSENTfrom the Providers' Applications. P. 37-

XVII. Funding Agreements for Continuous Monitoring and Independent Testing Requirements Which Are ABSENT from the Providers' Applications. P. 39-

XVIII. People to Contact. P. 41-

XIX. Quotation from the website "A Cellular Phone Tower on Ossining High School?" P. 41-

XX. Microwave Weapons Used for Changes in Behavior, Loss of Memory and Focus, and Death by Suicide or Cancer: Quotation from book by Tim Rifat, Remote Viewing: The History and Science of Psychic Warfare and Spying (1999) 74-89. P. 53

XXI. Bibliography for Section C. P. 61.-

Pictures and Videos P. 1-

Books, Articles in Books, Journal Articles, and Reviews of Books and Articles. P. 62-

Videos and Reviews of Videos. P. 95-

Websites. P. 95-

Bibliographies. P. 111-112

I.  I.  Henry Lai and the Comet Assay, Pictures and videos, cancer caused by non-ionizing radiation much less than the ‘safe’ level.  P. 3-


Website posted by Anne Maziar, Ph.D. ; Website last updated  November 24, 2006 {all the photos from 2006 are not here.  I need to find and add them].

The appeal against the Sprint PCS Microwave Cell Phone Tower at 9th and Baker St. was denied at their public meeting July 13, 2004  The public record does not include the entire report at this website, but an earlier rough-draft version of only 51 pages which I gave the Planning and Development Department in April.  None of my 49 attachments to my appeal was given to the City Council or included in the public record.  This tower was approved by the City Council.

The PCS cell phone tower proposed for 1201 S. Sunset was rejected by the Planning and Zoning Commission on May 19, 2004. The PCS microwave cell phone tower at 9th and Baker Street was approved. This appeal is being heard by the Longmont City Council at their regular public meeting to be held Tuesday, July 13, 2004, at 7:00 PM in the Council Chambers located in the Civic Center Complex at 350 Kimbark Street. To see the appeal and attachments, please see my website: http://spot.colorado.edu/~maziara/appeal&attachments .

At its regular meeting to be held Wednesday, 05/19/2004 at 07:00 PM in the Council Chambers located in the Civic Center Complex at 350 Kimbark Street, Planning and Zoning Commission, public hearing to consider the above. (Troy Bliss, 303-774-4708; 303-651-8330; FAX# 303-651-8696; Email: troy.bliss@ci.longmont.co.us and longmont.planning@ci.longmont.co.us )

Siting a cell tower on or near a school or in a residential area implies that cell phones are safe or beneficial. This is FALSE. Both cell phones and cell phone towers expose everyone to dangerous levels of radiation and are EXTREMELY genotoxic. In addition, property values near the tower will decrease between 11% and 100%.

"I have no doubt in my mind that, at the present time, the greatest polluting element in the earth's environment is the proliferation of electromagnetic fields." (Robert O, Becker, M.D., May 2000. Interview with Linda Moulton Howe. Dr. Becker is an Orthopedic Surgeon and pioneering researcher in the field of biological electricity and regeneration. Twice nominated for the Nobel Prize. Author of The Body Electric[William Morrow & Co., 1987] and Cross Currents [Tarcher/Putnam, 1990]). Http://www.grn.es/electropolucio/omega197.htm

"Upregulation of heat shock proteins (Hsps) is a normal defence response to a cellular stress. However, chronic expression of Hsps is known to induce or promote oncogenesis, metastasis and/or resistance to anticancer drugs.

"We propose that repeated exposure to mobile phone radiation acts as a repetitive stress leading to continuous expression of Hsps in exposed cells and tissues, which in turn affects their normal regulation, and cancer results. This hypothesis provides the possibility of a direct association between mobile phone use and cancer." French et al. Centre for Immunology, St Vincent's Hospital Darlinghurst, Sydney, NSW, Australia. (June 2001) "Mobile phones, heat shock proteins and cancer." Differentiation 67(4-5): 93-7. Http://www.grn.es/electropolucio/omega197.htm

"You pick up the phone, once, twice, ten times a day - or only a few times a month. But each and every time you're gambling that 'this time' won't be the occasion when the radiation causes irreparable damage to your brain. It only takes a seemingly small trauma at a very small location to result in tissue damage, DNA damage, or chromosome mutations.

"This nonscientific industry experiment using the general population is unique in the history of humanity. Never before has such a large 'guinea pig' experiment been performed. Even the government experiments with nuclear radiation only exposed a few thousand uninformed people. This bold experiment may expose virtually the entire segment of the population that can afford to operate the high-tech portables.

"It is cellular telephone Russian roulette. Go ahead and make the call. Do you feel lucky today?" (Kane [2001] 234-235)

III. Hazards of Microwave Radiation Caused by PCS Cellular Phone Towers.

A monopole is "a single self-supporting vertical pole with no guy wire anchors, usually consisting of galvanized or other unpainted metal, or a wooden pole with below grade foundations" (Tony Blair [2000]199; in Levitt [2000]) [bibliography at end of my website posting].

The City of Boulder, Colorado, allows NO free-standing cell towers AT ALL in their city (Link 1) . The City of Nederland (Boulder County, CO) has NO cell antennae AT ALL of any description within their city limits (phone interview with their City Planner, Judy Richardson; 303-258-3266).

These proposed cell phone tower antennae currently proposed in Longmont are MUCH TOO CLOSE to the surrounding buildings. The recommended distance for any cell antenna is AT LEAST 1500 FEET from any structure where people may congregate, live, or work when the terrain is flat and even greater when hillsides are on a lateral plane with antennae: The cell phone tower proposed for 1201 S. Sunset is across the street from the existing cell phone tower at 1200 S. Sunset. This constitutes the beginning of an ANTENNA FARM. The distance from an antenna farm should be SEVERAL MILES:

"Many communities have grouped communications facilities in one area, rather than allowing them to be scattered throughout the community. In general, this is a good idea IF IT ALSO REQUIRES ENOUGH SPACE AROUND THE AREA - IT SHOULD BE CONSIDERABLE - to allow for future growth. Such areas are sometimes referred to as antenna farms. The electromagnetic environment, even several miles away, can be extremely complex." (Levitt [1995] 381-382).

That this antenna farm is so close to 4 schools is extremely alarming, even frightening.

"Large setbacks should be established from homes, schools, hospitals, or wherever people congregate - at least 1500 feet. But individual topography counts a great deal. [See also Curry (2000)] In some circumstances, 1500 feet may not be enough if dwellings on nearby hillsides are on a lateral plane with antennae. Also other RF sources need to be factored in. Sometimes different frequencies can couple with each other in ways that engineering computer models cannot predict, creating significant exposures in unexpected places. (Levitt [2001] 47)"

These cell antennae and cell towers proposed for the City of Longmont are not needed. (See Levitt [2001] 25). The requirement for universal wireless telecommunications has already been met by Globalstar and Teledesic, satellite systems. These satellite systems, already in use for 911 calls in Vermont, are universally available and are the "most reliable in major weather calamities and for determining the location of the call (Levitt [2001] 25). There is no ground radiation for satellite systems. In addition, there is no radiofrequency interference (RFI) from proximity to cell towers or antennae which currently disables police and emergency communication. This is an added concern of parents whose children might one day be the victims of an incidence of a school shooting (Levitt [2001] 20-22).

In addition, there already exists other wireless phone coverage supplied by other mobile phone carriers. Local governments can protect their communities by allowing ONLY "signal strengths that will provide for adequate coverage and adequate capacity, not blanket coverage": "The right to determine signal strength at the local level has been upheld in federal case law in U.S. Sprint v. Willoth, and by the FCC. The FCC only requires approximately 75% coverage of an area--not 100% coverage (Levitt [2001] 47).."

Moreover, communities can protect their inhabitants by recommending cell phone carriers that use technology which is less lethal than digital cell phones and microwave cell towers.

Critical questions concerning the health effects and safety of radio frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF) remain! Should we expose our children and ourselves to this radiation?

Who is Afraid of Cell Phone Towers? The Executives of Cell Phone Companies. See: "Who's Afraid of Cell Phone Masts? - The Companies." Http://www.rense.com/general44/cphone.htm

Lloyd Phillips, of Phillips Microtechnology, Inc. (copyright 2002) writes the following concerning the microwave radiation coming from a PCS cell tower base station such as the 40 ft. cell tower proposed for 9th and Baker, the 60 ft. cell tower proposed for 1201 S. Sunset, and the existing 100 ft. cell tower and approved additional antennae at the 60 ft. level at Olde Columbine High School and the vocational school CDC:

"The Power Radiated from a PCS Antenna with only one transmitter operating can legally be 1,640 watts. This is 328,000 times more Power than the maximum allowable leakage from a Microwave Oven in the U.S. and 1,640,000 times greater than allowed in Russia (0.001 watts).

"Under U.S. Federal guidelines set by the Department of Health and Human services (DHHS), the maximum allowable leakage from a microwave oven [after the sale] is 5 milliwatts [or 5 thousandths of a watt] per square centimeter [or within the area the size of an aspirin tablet]....

"the Russians and other European countries have their own strict guidelines for microwave safety, concluding that Western safety standards are simply not safe (Link 7) ."

Dr. Henry Lai of the Bioelectromagnetics Research Laboratory , Dept. of Bioengineering, Univ. of Washinton, also questions the current guidelines for RFR (radiofrequency radiation) exposure:

"The present U.S. guidelines for RFR exposure are not up-to-date. The most recent IEEE Guidelines only included research data up to 1985. In addition, effects of long-term exposure, modulation, and other propagation characteristics are not considered. Therefore, the current guidelines are questionable in protecting the public from possible harmful effects of RFR exposure.

"Exposure of the general population to RFR from wireless communication devices and transmission towers should be kept to a minimum and should follow the ALAR principle - "As Low As Reasonably Achievable" (in Levitt [2001] 71-72).

In additional reason for denying these applications is that these base station attennae are even more dangerous because electromagnetic waves can quadruple on the ground: "It should also be noted that electromagnetic waves that reflect from the ground can theoretically quadruple in power density because of the phase relationships inherent over different propagation pathways. This is known as Fresnel reflection, and the region over ground that produces this effect is defined by Fresnel zones" (Kasevich in Levitt [2001] 172).

Pine trees also act as a monopole antenna because of the thinness of the pine needles:

"The thinness factor actually amplifies the local radiofrequency or microwave electric field intensity because the electric field induced polarization charge in the pine needle is large compared to a hypothetical round dielectrically equivalent object. Polarization charges exist in all dielectric materials and produce electromagnetic effects similar to what one normally associates with free electrons in metal conductors such as currents when a voltage or electric field is applied.

"There is also this important fact: any tree may act as a receiving dielectric rod or monopole antenna with the ability to both absorb energy from the wave passing by and to scatter the wave in many directions. If the polarization of the transmitting tower antenna matches the particular tree or trees (i.e., vertical orientation of the antenna which is usually the case in collinear dipole arrays on towers), maximum coupling or absorption of the wave energy by the tree will occur. Polarization and conduction currents will generally flow to the root system." (Kasevich in Levitt [2001] 172-173).

Dr. Wolfgang Wolkrodt believes that deforestation is caused not by acid rain, but by electromagnetic energy. (Kasevich in Levitt [2001] 173)

Dr. Bill Curry, in an excerpt from his article in Levitt (2001), lists the following:

"Published RF/MW Bioeffects and Adverse Health Effects:

- Sleep disorders and insomnia, decrease in REM sleep

- Slowed motor skills and reaction time in school children

- Altered white blood cell activity in school children

- Decreased sperm count and reduced insulin production

- Headaches, tinnitus, and spatial disorientation

- Blood brain barrier changes and altered brain activity

- Impaired nervous system activity

- Increased heart rate and blood pressure

- Loss of concentration and 'fuzzy thinking'

- Decreased immune function

- DNA damage in human white blood cells (Link25) ."

In 2003, "scientists discovered that prolonged exposure to radiation emitted by mobile handsets and base stations can destroy cells in the parts of the brain responsible for memory, movement and learning." This research is from Lund University Hospital in Sweden and links "the use of mobile phones (and/or exposure of similar duration to radiation from mobile phone base stations)" to "the early onset of Alzheimer's disease and dementia" Http://pages.britishlibrary.net/orange/biologeffects.htm . They conclude that "'We can see reduced brain reserve capacity', meaning those who would normally have got Alzheimer's or dementia in old age will get it much earlier, those who would not 'normally' have got Alzheimer's or dementia during their lifespan are at greater risk of doing so, and that both will at best have a significantly diminished number of non dysfunctional brain cells and brain sub-systems throughout their lives."

Geoffrey Lean reports the prediction that many present day teenagers will have Alzheimer's or dementia in their thirties [Lean, Geoffrey. "Mobiles 'make you senile'." Http://news.independent.co.uk/world/science_medical/story.jsp?story=443248 (Link25) ].

Depression and suicide are twice as great near a cell phone tower. See: Beaulieu, Michelle. "Suicides linked to electromagnetic fields." Http://www.personalmd.com/news/n0316052943.shtml ; Electromagnetic fields 'raise suicide risk'. Http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/677256.stm

Dr. Neil Cherry cites over forty cell phone radiation studies in his paper "Health Effects Associated with Mobile Base Stations in Communities: The Need for Health Studies" (2000) (Link 6) He states that these studies show that "cell phone radiation mimics the biological and epidemiological studies for EMR over the past 4 decades. This includes DNA strand breakage, chromosome aberrations, increased oncogene activity in cells, reduced melatonin, altered brain activity, altered blood pressure and increased brain cancer.

"Analogue cell phones use FM RF/MW signals and digital cell phones use pulsed microwaves that are very similar to radar signals. FM radio, radar exposures cause significant and dose response increases in brain cancer, leukaemia and other cancers, and cardiac, neurological and reproductive health effects. Hence it is highly probable that cell sites and cell phones are causing many adverse health effects. Already cell phone radiation has been shown to significantly increase all these effects (Link 6) ."

See also Henry Lai, "Genetic Effects of Nonionizing Electrogmagnetic Fields." http://www.emfbioeffects.org/images/Lai%20Biblio.doc ; his "Neurological Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation," (Vienna 1998) http://www.mapcruzin.com/radiofrequency/henry_lai2.htm ; his "Neurological Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation Relating to Wireless Communication Technology," (Brussels, 1997). Http://www.mapcruzin.com/radiofrequency/henry_lai1.htm ; Steve Gamble, "The Dangers of EMF Radiation and What We Can Do to Improve Our Health in Today's Polluted World" http://www.equilibra.uk.com/emfsbio.shtml ; Cherry, Neil. "Cherry on Safe Exposure Levels." (89 pages) http://pages.britishlibrary.net/orange/cherryonexplevel.htm ; and "Cellular Phones, Mobile and Base Station Antenna Radiation and Human Health" (Link 5) .

There are also problems associated with wireless internet . Wireless LANs are wireless local area network installations. EMR Network, a non profit awareness group, asserts that "electromagnetic radiation (EMR), the radio frequencies (RF) and microwave (MW) radiation, may be hazardous to life and may constitute a significant threat to public health, This belief is based on credible research, spanning decades of scientific inquiry" (Link3) . Wireless LANs transmit and receive data over the air, and were the discussion of presentation in Brattleboro, VT, on May 19, 2001, including discussion of emerging communications technologies that may be less harmful.

Brown, Gary. (2000). "Wireless Devices, Standards, and Microwave Radiation in the Education Environment." Http://members.iinet.net.au/~emfacts/wlans.html

Levitt (2001) 61, 62.

There have been a number of epidemiological studies which have been made of people living near transmission facilities, with increases found in adverse health effects. See Levitt ([1995] 362-364) for a list of these studies and the adverse health effects. Levitt lists studies from Honolulu and Oahu Hawaii; Thurso, Scotland; Birmingham, England; Schwarzenburg, Switzerland; Skrunda, Latvia; Zagreb, Croatia; South Patrick Shores, Florida; Vernon, New Jersey; and Wichita, Kansas.

"By the estimate of Dr. Andrew Marino, in an assessment of possible exposures [of RF/MW radiation] to residents near a cellular-phone tower in one California community, annual exposures could be between 1,350 and 18,000 times greater than the EPA's typical city exposure as found in its survey.... - levels at which serious health damage was observed" (Levitt [1995] 362).

One possible explanation for the danger of exposure to RF/MW radiation exists in the discovery in 1992 of magnetic crystals in brain tissue by Dr. Joseph Lynn Kirschvink, a professor of geobiology at Caltech, Atsuko Kobayashi-Kirschvink, a research engineer also at Caltech, and Barbara Woodford, a research associate at USC.

"In their studies, all areas of the brain revealed significant levels of magnetite, but the highest levels were associated with the meninges, the membrane that covers the brain. There were about 5 million crystals per gram of brain tissue, with concentrations of over 100 million crystals per gram in the meninges." (Levitt [1995] 151-152).

Another factor is that magnetic fields affect the body at the level of genetic processes. Vladimir Binhi states that "electromagnetobiology is a part of a more general issue of the biological effectiveness of weak and hyperweak physico-chemical factors. It is believed that the action of such factors lies below the trigger threshold for protective biological mechanisms and is therefore prone to accumulating at the subcellular level and is likely at the level of genetic processes" ([2002] 3). "Magnetobiology addresses the biological reactions and mechanisms of the action of the action of primarily weak, lower than 1 m T, magnetic fields."

Levitt states that "the kind of magnetite the researchers discovered (ferromagnetite) interacts a million times more strongly with external magnetic fields than with other biological material.... This research suggests that if magnetite crystals are coupled with the cells's ion channels, external fields could be opening and closing these channels, with unknown biological effects. It is one plausible machanism for the observed effects of the clacium efflux response at different frequencies." (Levitt [1995] 152)

A fourth explanation or factor is that "it is well known that an MF changes the activity of melatonin enzyme, which is responsible for the fine regulation of the immune system (Wilson et al., 1981; Cremer-Bartels et al. 1984; Lerchl et al. 1991; Kato et al., 1993, 1994; Loscher et al., 1994; Kato and Shigemitxu, 1996; Stevenset al., 1997; Harland and Liburdy, 1997; Blackman et al., 2001)." (Binhi [2002] 8).

A fifth explanation of causes of adverse health from non-thermal radiation is cellular stress (Velizarov; abstract by Lai in Levitt [2001] 290).

For more causes see Sage:.(Sage, Cindy. (1999). [Sage Expert Testimony for the UK Independent Expert Group on Mobile Phones.] [Sage Report]. Http://www.wave-guide.org/library/sage-uk-test.html Or: http://www.marginata.com/tower/docs/EMR/sagereport.htm . Sage, Cindy. (2001). "Microwave and Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure: A Growing Environmental Health Crisis?" Http://www.grn.es/electropolucio/omega42.htm )

See also the section below entitled "II. Mobile Phone Safety?"

It is probable that there are many additional factors, causes, and explanations that I am still unaware of.

Binhi states that the most complete protection against harmful EMF action "is only possible under natural conditions, in the country, where the level of 'electromagnetic smog' is about three orders of magnitude smaller than in town" ([2002] 10).

See also: Hyland, G.J. "How Exposure to Base-station Radiation can Adversely Affect Humans." (Link38)

II. Mobile Phone Safety? Children at an Even Greater Risk Than Adults.

So-called safety suggestions are set forth more to protect the cell phone industry than the consumer. These measures, such as keeping the antenna fully extended, not using the cell phone in a vehicle, not using the cell phone while wearing glasses, not using the cell phone when the battery is not fully charged, limiting calls to short time periods or only for emergencies, do reduce the radiation level. They just don't reduce radiation to safe levels. Some measures actually raise radiation levels. Smaller phones have increased radiation. Hands-free sets have higher levels of radiation. The tolerance level for the non-ionizing radiation emitted by cell phones and cell phone towers is ZERO.

"Hot Spots" - Radiation Energy Absorption from a Cell Phone Is Twice as Great inside the Brain as outside the Skull (200 times greater than expected); Radiofrequency Energy Can Damage Brain Cells in a Fraction of a Second: Dr. Robert C. Kane (2001), Cellular Telephone Russian Roulette: A Historical and Scientific Perspective, p. 43-44, 45-47, 53-55, 52.

"It only takes a very short time to destroy living brain tissue. RF energy absorbed within a fraction of a second can be enough to damage and modify the structure of brain cells and molecules. For example, a few seconds of intense exposure is enough to kill laboratory rabbits with radiofrequency radiation. Researchers noted that

"'experiments in which the head area alone was directly irradiated suggest that the fatal outcome was the result of an excessive rise in brain temperature. The lethal effects of irradiation to a limited area of the body are different from those in which the entire animal is exposed.' (Hines and Randall [1952] 879.)

That warning was first provided in 1952."(Kane [2001] 43-44)

"Lin also acknowledged that energy absorption occurs very rapidly (J.C. Lin [July 1977] 605-13). So, during short exposures of from a few seconds to a few minutes, very little heat conduction - heat energy movement through the tissue - takes place. This is important in view of 'hot spot' absorptions. If a 'hot spot' situation exists, rapid energy absorption will have maximum destructive effect because, in accordance with Lin's reported findings, very little of the heat caused by the absorption will have an opportunity to dissipate. As Lin puts it,

"'Because, microwave absorption occurs in a very short time, there will be little chance for heat conduction to take place.'

"The conduction of heat takes much longer. Alternatively, he advises that

"'The temperature decay is therefore a slowly varying function of time...'

"What we expect then is rapid heating and slow cooling. At 'hot spots' the inability of biological tissue to get ride of excess heat quickly and efficiently may yet be another mechanism leading to destructive exposure, even at levels previously thought to be incapable of raising tissue temperature.

"If 'hot spots' occur at localized or microscopic regions within the brain, where there are no thermal or sensory receptors, there is no reason to expect that the body will attempt to compensate for the overheating. The human brain simply does not have the capacity to prevent the damage.

"There are, of course, exposures that will result in 'hot spot' damage that is significant enough to be readily observable. There is also another less noticable type of 'hot spot' damage. Microscopic 'hot spots' can selectively destroy or damage tissue and leave no outwardly visible traces of that damage. In the previous chapter exactly this type of microscopic 'hot spot' damage was described and documented.

"Humans operating RF radiating devices expose themselves to similar damage. Within the human brain the regions most closely associated with RF radiation exposures, the temporal lobes, are also the regions most tolerant to damage - that is, most tolerant in the sense that one would never know of an injury. It is possible to continually create uncountable millions of microscopic injuries within these regions and yet the damage could go unnoticed externally even with MRI or CT examination. But the damage would produce an effect internal to the injured person.

"Recall what we learned earlier from Michaelson and consider it once again within the context of virtually millions of microscopic brain cell injuries:

"'It should be understood that a cumulative effect is the accumulation of damage resulting from repeated exposures each of which is individually capable of producing some small degree of damage. In other words, a single exposure can result in covert thermal injury, but the incurred damage repairs itself within a sufficient time period, for example hours or days, and therefore is reversible and does not advance to a noticeable permanent or semipermanent state. If a second exposure or several repetitive exposures take place at time intervals shorter than that needed for repair, damage can advance to a noticeable stage.' (Michaelson [April 1972] 389-421."(Kane [2001] 45-47)

"Usually, as radiofrequency radiation penetrates into the brain it is being absorbed so that as it propagates more deeply there is less remaining and the magnitude, or strength, or the radiation decreases with increasing depth. But this is not the situation where 'hot spots' exist. Johnson and Guy [June 1972] report that, at 918 MHz the depth of penetration is 3.2 cm, and that's consistent with what we've reviewed earlier. However they found that

"'...for human brain exposed to 918-MHz power, the absorption at a depth 2.3 times the depth of penetration (depth of penetration=3.2 cm) is twice the absorption at the surface. This corresponds to a factor greater than 200 times than expected...' (Kane [2001] 53-54)

"This means that at a depth within the human brain of about 7 cm (almost 3 inches) 'hot spots' were found that produced energy absorption 200 times greater than would be the case if no 'hot spot' existed.

"More startling is the observation that at this great depth within the brain the 'hot spot' absorption is actually two times greater than the absorption near the surface where the radiation is assumed to be strongest.

"'The regions of intense absorbed power density are due to a combination of high refractive index and the radius of curvature of the model which produces a strong focussing of power toward the interior of the sphere.'

"Focusing due to head curvature is held responsible for the 'hot spot' absorption. With this knowledge, along with earlier research findings reporting the same results, we can understand how people with smaller or rounder skull shapes may be at increased risks...(Kane [2001] 54)

"Although the primary importance of their work rests with the effects of the multilayered model, these researchers (Joines and Spiegel [January 1974]) also found that an absorption peak occurs at approximately 750 MHz and near 2,100 MHz for a 7 cm radius sphere. Interestingly, both of these frequencies are almost exactly where the cellular telephone industry has chosen to operate their portable transmitters. The PCS devices operate near 2,100 MHz- - actually in the 1700 - 1900 MHz range. (Kane [2001] 55)"

"Other researchers have recorded this same 'hot spot' absorption characteristic across a wide frequency range (Kritikos and Schwan, [1976])....

"Researchers also reported that maximum 'hot spot' energy absorption enhancements occur in the frequency region around the cellular telephone frequencies (Schwan [January, 1972] and Schwan [July, 1972]....

"All of which means that this alarm raised about 'hot spot' RF energy absorption related to head size and children has been known in the industry since long before the very first portable was put into the anxious hands of the very first customer (Kane [2001] 52)."

The head as an antenna and brain tissue as a radio receiver: Weinberger, Z and Richter, E.D. (2002) Med Hypotheses 59 (6): 703-705. Abstract at Http://www.grn.es/electropolucio/omega80.htm

"Headache and other neuropsychological symptoms occur in users of cellular telephones, and controversy exists concerning risks for brain cancer.

"We hypothesize these effects result from the head serving as an antenna and brain tissue as a radio receiver. The frequencies for transmission and reception by cellular telephones, about 900 MHz for analog and 1800 MHz for digital transmission, have wavelengths of 33 - 35 and 16 - 17 cm, respectively.

"Human heads are oval in shape with a short axis about 16 to 17 cm in length. Near the ear there will be a cross-section in the head with an axis half the wavelength of RF/MW transmissions of 900 MHz and equal to the wavelength of RF/MW transmissions at 1800 MHz.

"Therefore, the human head can serve as a lossy resonator for the electromagnetic radiation emitted by the cellular telephone, absorbing much of the energy specifically from these wavelengths.

"Brain cells and tissues demodulate the cell-phone's audio frequencies from the radio frequency carrier. Low audio frequencies in the ranges of alpha and beta waves affect these waves and thereby influence brain function."

Microwave radiation induces perception of sound by direct penetration into the brain even perceived by deaf persons: Paul Brodeur, The Zapping of America: Microwaves, Their Deadly Risk and the Cover-Up (1977) p. 46-53.

"The extent to which Congress's hands were tied in this regard was clearly stated in a letter sent on June 5, 1968, to Senator Warren G. Magnuson, chairman of the Commerce Committee, by the acting general counsel for the Department of Defense:

"'It is understood, however, that the development of product standards to protect the public health will not necessarily preclude the use of devices, e.g., radars, communications transmitters, etc., which are designed to intentionally emit large quantities of radiation. The use of such devices is often essential to meet requirements of the national defense. It is anticipated that in developing standards, the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare will give consideration to the use and purpose of these devices and will consult with other federal agencies on the development of standards which could have such an effect on these devices. Moreover, if standards are developed that do have an effect on the operation of devices essential to the national defense it is understood that this will be a matter subject to exemption under section 360 (A) (b).'

"....One of the most significant contributions of the Bureau of Radiological Health in carrying out the provisions of the 1968 act was to propose a three-day symposium on the Biological Effects and Health Implications of Microwave Radiation. Sponsored by the Medical College of Virginia, the symposium was held in Richmond in September 1969, and it marked the first time since the final Tri-Service conference, in 1960, that leading microwave scientists had gathered to discuss their work....

"Dr. Karel Marha, director of the department of high frequency of the Institute of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases in Prague, was on hand to describe research that had been undertaken in Czechoslovakia. According to Dr. Marha, investigators from his department had visited some 200 workplaces - including factories where microwave devices were manufactured, radio and television stations, and radar centers - and had found a wide variety of neurological problems among the people who were employed in them. 'Typical symptoms are pains in the head and eyes and fatigue connected with overall weakness, dizziness, and vertigo when standing for a long period,' Dr. Marha told the symposium. "Sleep at night is restive and superficial, and there is sleepiness during the day. Exposed individuals are subject to changing moods; they often become irritated to the point of becoming intolerable. Hypochondriac reactions are manifested along with feelings of fear. Sometimes those affected feel nervous tension, or, on the contrary, mental depression connected with inhibition of intellectual functions - mainly decreased memory. The afflicted workers complain of a feeling of strain in the skin of the head and forehead; their hair falls out; they complain of pains in the muscles and in the heart region connected with irregular heart beating and breathlessness.'

"According to Dr. Marha, Czechoslovak investigators had found that some of these effects could be induced at power densities as low as one-tenth of a milliwatt per square centimeter - a hundred times less than the American standard. He went on to explain that because the effects of repeated irradiation were thought to be cumulative, and because large variations had been found in the sensitivities of different people, the Czechoslovak standard for exposure to microwaves incorporated a safety factor of ten, and was thus similar to the standard that was in force in the Soviet Union. Pregnant women were specifically prohibited from working in areas where these levels were exceeded.

"As it turned out, the reason for this drastic prohibition was described at some length in a book entitled Electromagnetic Field and the Life Environment, which Dr. Marha and two of his colleagues had recently written. In the section dealing with the biological effects of radio-frequency energy, Dr. Marha pointed out that morphological alterations caused by microwave radiation could result in 'changes of the reproductive cycle, in a decrease in the number of offspring, in the sterility of the offspring, or in an increase in the number of females born.'....

"In emphasizing the human factor, Dr. Marha put his finger on a strange deficiency in the microwave research that had been carried on in this country. For more than twenty years, countless dogs, cats, rabbits, rats, and other test animals had been irradiated (or zapped, as some American scientists are fond of saying) with microwaves of various frequencies and power densities in order to induce cataracts, sterility, or sleep, or to produce fever, brain damage, or death. All this experimental work had, of course, been performed with the idea of determining a safe level of exposure for human beings. Yet, curiously, except for a study limited to the ophthalmological effects of microwaves, no broad survey had ever been undertaken in the United States to determine the health experience of radar workers and other people who had been exposed to microwaves over long periods. In short, during the whole of these two decades - a time in which there had been an incredible drive to exploit the commercial and military importance and uses of microwaves - the actual biological effects of microwaves on human beings had been virtually ignored by all but a few of the researchers who were investigating the problem.

"As it happened, the Richmond symposium was attended by several scientists who had chosen not to ignore the effects of microwaves upon human beings. One of them was Dr. Allan H. Frey, a biophysicist working for Randomline, a research firm in Huntingdon Valley, Pennsylvania, who had done some pioneer research in the effects of microwaves upon the nervous system. Frey's interest in microwaves had begun in 1961. At the time he was working in the General Electric Company's Advanced Electronics Center, at Cornell University, and he also held a contract from the Office of Naval Research to investigate the effects of radio-frequency energy on the nervous system and on behavior. By chance one day, he met a technician from General Electric's radar test facility in Syracuse, who told Frey that he could hear radar. Frey knew that people were supposed to be able to hear only acoustical energy, but instead of rejecting the man's contention out of hand he arranged to visit the test facility. 'The fellow worked near a radar dome,' Frey has since recalled. 'And when I walked around there and climbed up to stand at the edge of the pulsating beam, I could hear it, too. I could hear the radar going zip-zip-zip.'

"During subsequent field tests, Frey determined that human beings could indeed hear pulsed microwaves at frequencies ranging from 300 to 3,000 megahertz - the portion of the radio-frequency spectrum at which electromagnetic energy passes into and through the head, and which includes the frequencies used for radar, television, shortwave radio, microwave ovens, and microwave communications-relay towers. He also found that, depending upon the width of the pulse and its rate of repetition, radio-frequency sound was perceived as buzzing, ticking, hissing, or knocking; that it could be induced several hundred feet from an antenna the instant the antenna's transmitter was turned on; that it could occur at average power densities far below the ten-milliwatt level; that it could be perceived by people who were blindfolded and people who were deaf; and that it always seemed to come from within or a short distance behind the head....

"Frey set out to try to determine how microwaves could produce the sensation of sound. He soon demonstrated through human and animal studies that the sound of radar could not be conveyed to the ear by any mechanical vibration of the teeth, eardrums, skin, bone, or muscle. Since he knew that the microwave frequencies that induced the perception of sound could penetrate into the brain, he decided to explore the possibility (already under investigation by Soviet scientists) that electromagnetic waves might be able to excite the nerve tissue of the brain directly. To investigate this possibility, he implanted electrodes in the brains of cats and began to record their brain waves as light traces on an oscilloscope. He then irradiated the heads of the cats with pulsed microwaves at average power densities as low as thirty microwatts per square centimeter - a level of intensity nearly 350 times less than the ten-milliwatt standard. When he did so, there was unmistakable and incontrovertible evidence on the oscilloscope that the brain - including the hypothalamic area, where emotions are believed to originate - shows a strong reaction to stimulation by microwave energy.

"In addition to studying the effects of microwaves on the nervous system, Frey performed experiments on the hearts of frogs. During these experiments, he found that when he synchronized pulsed microwave energy with the heartbeat cycle he could not only alter the rhythm of the heartbeat but cause the heart to stop beating altogether. By the time of the Richmond symposium, in 1969, all this work had been published, and Frey was finally beginning to win the respect of his colleagues. This did not deter him from admonishing them about the narrowness and rigidity of their thinking and their approach to microwave research. Frey urged his fellow-scientists to forget mathematical calculations that supposedly proved microwaves could not affect nerves and to recognize that very little was known about the workings of the nervous system, and even less about the possible interactions of radio-frequency energy with neural function. Commenting on the headache phenomenon described by Dr. Marha, he said his own work had convinced him that it was a real effect, and one that should be further explored. 'I have not done so with humans because I think there is an ethical question,' Frey continued. He then made a statement that no other American microwave researcher had ever made in public. 'I have seen too much,' he said. 'I very carefully avoid exposure myself, and I have for quite some time now. I do not feel that I can take people into these fields and expose them and in all honesty indicate to them that they are going into something safe.'"

Cellular Phones Are Exempt from Safety Standards: Kane (2001) 128-130.

"We also see how industry researchers tied their experimental results to the lobbying effort that would exempt portable products from the safety standards.

"'The proposed standard recognizes the possibility of encountering fields higher than the maxima of the Protection Guides in the close vicinity of low power radiators, like portable communication equipment. For this reason, an exclusion clause for devices operating at 1 Ghz or less and with less than 7 W output power has been proposed' (Balzano [November 1978] 174-181).

"They have clearly stated that since the safety standard cannot be met by portable hand-held transmitters; such transmitters, portable radios and portable cellular telephones for example, should be exempt.

"They continue by verifying that portable transmitter products cannot meet the safety standards. The researchers state that

"'the Radio Frequency Protection Guides of the American National Standards Institute at 750MHz would be violated at 0.3 cm distance by a resonant dipole radiating about 1mW and at 0.5 cm distance by a radiated power of 4mW.' (Balzano [November 1978] 174-181).

"Interestingly, a 'resonant dipole' provides the most favorable condition of minimum stored energy around the antenna. For antennas of different configuration, the stored energy is many times larger. This would force the allowed radiated power level to much lower levels in order to comply with safe exposure requirements.

"The researchers themselves concede that

"'A rigorous enforcement without exclusion of the Radio Frequency Protection Guides would render portable radios practically useless.

"'Strict enforcement...technically forbids the exposure to a resonant dipole about 19cm long, radiating 1mW...' (Balzano [November 1978] 174-181).

"Having examined their own data, these researchers conclude that in order to meet the requirements of the proposed ANSI safety standard the power from a transmitter would need to be reduced to less than 1.0 mW. That means as long ago as 1981 industry research confirmed that the transmit power level from portable cellular telephones was about six hundred times higher than the ANSI safety standards would allow. Their solution to the dangerous radiation exposure problem: exempt the portables from the safety standard." (Kane [2001] 128-130)

"Having examined their own data, these researchers conclude that in order to meet the requirements of the proposed ANSI safety standard the power from a transmitter would need to be reduced to less than 1.0 mW. That means as long ago as 1981 industry research confirmed that the transmit power level from portable cellular telephones was about six hundred times higher than the ANSI safety standards would allow. Their solution to the dangerous radiation exposure problem: exempt the portables from the safety standard." (Kane [2001] 130).

Recently proposed safety standards have been rejected:

"Interestingly, at the same time that the cellular telephone industry was scrambling to shore up the indefensible position, a controversy regarding safe exposure levels erupted within the U.S. Air Force. Apparently, researchers at Kirtland Air Force Base have determined that the most recently proposed IEEE/ANSI safety standards are not representative of the real hazards associated with radiofrequency radiation exposure. They have recommended that the maximum exposure level be reduced by 100 times to 0.1mW/cm² and have adopted the reduced maximum exposure as a guideline for Kirtland works...

"This new, lower exposure standard adopted at the Kirtland Lab is consistent with a reduced exposure standard dopted at the Johns Hopkins University. Applied Physics Lab and at the Ground Systems Group at the Hughes Aircraft Company. The newly adopted exposure level is 100 times lower than recommended in the most recent proposed revision in the ANSI safety standard." (Kane [2001] 212-213).

Radiation from Cell Phones Causes Breakage in DNA Strands: Stewart Fist, "Lai-Singh and the Comet Assays." Http://www.electric-words.com/cell/electaus/electrophoresis.html (Link132)

Singh (1994). "Fig. 1. Unexposed control, The bundle is simply DNA." Http://www.electric-words.com/cell/electaus/electrophoresis.html (Link132) . Picture also at: http://www.electric-words.com/cell/electaus/control1.gif

Singh (1994). "Fig. 2. X-ray calibration: After 6.4 rads. DNA strand breaks are evident.." Http://www.electric-words.com/cell/electaus/electrophoresis.html (Link132) . Picture also at: http://www.electric-words.com/cell/electaus/calib2.gif

Singh (1994). "Fig. 3. X-ray calibration: After 25.6 rads. DNA strand breaks are now very obvious.." Http://www.electric-words.com/cell/electaus/electrophoresis.html (Link132) . Picture also at: http://www.electric-words.com/cell/electaus/calib3.gif

Singh (1994). "Fig. 4 Assay showing effect of 2 hrs of microwave exposure (2.45GHz) at a SAR (absorption) level of 0.6 W/kg [about cell phone handset levels]. DNA strand breaks are also obvious.." Http://www.electric-words.com/cell/electaus/electrophoresis.html (Link132) . Picture also at: http://www.electric-words.com/cell/electaus/comet3.gif

Human Cells Amplify Wireless Phone Radiation: Sebastián, J.L., S. Muñoz, M. Sancho and J.M. Miranda. "Analysis of the influence of the cell geometry, orientation and cell proximity effects on the electric field distribution from direct RF exposure." Physics in Medicine and Biology 46(2001) 213-225. See also http://www.iop.org/EJ/abstract/0031-9155/46/1/315 [This journal is at CU-Boulder as an electronic journal, and the article is available in pdf format from a link at this site].

"The researchers calculated electric field intensity in a variety of shapes and found the intensity for non-spherical cells was dependent on the angle of the cell in relation to the radiation source.

"Specifically, the electric field was amplified across the cell membrane - an effect not taken into account by previous investigations. Radiation was amplified more by ellipsoidal and cylindrical-shaped cells than by spherical cells." (Houck, J.B. (2000) Http://www.newsfactor.com/perl/story/5973.html : For a picture of a computer simulated model of cells being amplified by radiation see Houck's article.)

In addition, "cytoplasmic and extracellular bound water layers play" a significant role "in determining the electric field intensity for the cylindrical and ellipsoidal cell models (Sebastián [2001] 213)." "A comparative analysis between the two- and four-layer structures shows that the extra bound water layers have a significant influence on the magnitude of the E-field within the membrane of cylindrical and ellipsoidal cell models. In all cases it is found that the electric field is amplified across the membrane (223)."

And finally, "a study of the mutual interactions between cells shows that polarizing effects between cells significantly modify the values of field intensity within the cell (213)." "It is observed that for this situation the resulting field within the membrane has a higher value than the corresponding one for the same value of d in figure 5 due to the combination of the polarizing fields from the two neighbouring cells that reinforce the external field E. Also, when all three cells are in contact the value of the electric field is almost twice the value corresponding to a single isolated cell (220-221)."

"Many biological cells (like muscular or red blood cells) deviate from the spherical form (214)."

The frequencies of RF (radio-frequency) radiation considered in this study were 900 and 2450 MHz.

This authors of this study conclude: "There are many theoretical proposals and experimental data that suggest that EM fields act through an interaction mediated at the plasma membrane that affects enzyme activities and signal transduction pathways. The combination of the effects of cell shape and cell interaction on the level of electric field across the plasma membrane studied in this work is essential to gain an understanding of the possible mechanisms, including athermal effects, of the action of electromagnetic fields. (Sebastián [2001]224)"

The Radiation from Cell Phones is Genotoxic: Cherry, Dr. Neil. "Evidence that Electromagnetic Radiation is Genotoxic: The implications for the epidemiology of cancer and cardiac, neurological and reproductive effects." (46 pages) http://www.grn.es/electropolucio/cherry600.htm

"The principles found to important are that biology reveals that brains, hearts and cells use electromagnetic signals, charged ions, coltage-gated ion channels, ion regulated gap junctions, all of which can be interfered with by external electromagnetic fields in subtle but vital ways in relation to health.

"A primary physical principle of resonant absorption explains why external nd internal signals that share the same part of the spectrum, resonantly exchange energy at levels well below the thermal threshold. This is also true for radio and TV receivers. It involves tuned circuits and resonant absorption....

"In assessing genotoxicity, any evidence of genetic damage, cell death or neoplastic transformation is evidence of genotoxicity. The genetic material is fundamentally the double helix of the DNA molecule. During the cell cycle the helix unwinds and clones itself. They then fold themselves into the set of chromosomes that are so large that they can be seen in powerful microscopes. In the second half of the cell cycle the chromosomes clone themselves so that at mitosis, cell division, each cell has a full set of chromosomes. They then unfold themselves to form the DNA strands.

"Any substance that damages DNA or chromosomes, or changes genetic activity, is genotoxic because it is acting on the same material, i.e. the DNA molecule. A genotoxic substance is mutagenic, carcinogenic and teratogenic. (2)"

"It is observed that both biological effects and epidemiological effects appear to be the same or very similar from ELF exposure and from RF/MW exposures, including calcium ion efflux, melatonin reduction, DNA strand breakage, chromosome aberations, leukaemia, brain cancer, breast cancer, miscarriage and neurological effects." (3)

"Substances that damage cellular genetic material, such as DNA and chromosomes, are called "genotoxic". Genotoxic substances cause cancer, reproductive health effects and neurological damage. Chromosome aberrations are visible through powerful microscopes. Chromosomes are formed from folded segments of DNA. Damage to chromosomes is therefore evidence of damage to DNA....

"Many studies have shown that radiofrequency/microwave (RF/MW) radiation and extremely low frequency (ELF) fidles cause increased DNA strand breakage and chromosome aberrations. This has been shown in cell lines, human blood, animals and living human beings. This means that epidemiological studies of people exposed to electromagnetic radiation (EMR) are likely to show increased cancer, miscarriage and reproductive adverse effects. In fact many epidemiological studies have shown these effects, Goldsmith (1995, 2996, 1997, 1997a), Szmigielski (1991, 1996).

"Two plausible biological mechanisms involving free radicals are involved in this effect. The first involves increased free radical activity and genetic damage as a response to exposure. The second involves increased free radical activity and genetic damage because of an induced reduction of a free radical scavenger, e.g. reduced melatonin, Reiter (1994). It is clear however, that mechanisms have the same effect of damaging the DNA and chromosomes. Another established biological mechanism, EMR-induced alteration of cellular calcium ion homeostasis, Blackman (1990), is also involved in cell regulation, cell survival and apoptosis, DNA synthesis and melatonin regulation." (9)

"Brains are very electromagnetically sensitive because our sight, thoughts, memories, learning and emotions use complex electromagnetic signals. Research in Germany in the post war period proved that human brains detect and use extremely small natural low frequency (ELF) EMR signals, Wever (1974), Konig (1974). Since RF/MW signals induce higher currents in human tissues and low frequency signals it is inevitable that we will observe neurological effects from chronic RF/MW exposures.

"Recent studies have revealed some neurological dose response relationships for sleep disturbance, Multiple Sclerosis and Suicide at extremely low exposures to RF and ELF exposures. Beale et al. (1997) found significant dose response for psychological symptoms, including anxiety and depression, living in proximity to high voltage powerlines. This strongly confirms the sensitivity of human brains to EMR exposure.

"These studies have early roots in U.S. Embassy in Moscow study. Lilienfeld et al. (1978), showed significant neurological effects from chronic low level radar exposure, including Depression (p=0.004), Irritability (p=0.009), Memory Loss (p=0.008) and Difficulty in Concentrating (p=0.001).

"These are all symptoms related to melatonin reduction. The Korean War Study, Robinette et al. (1980) also found increased neurological health effects from personnel who were exposed to radar on ships during the Korean War. These symptoms between a high exposure group (FT+AT) and a low exposure group (ET), Mental Conditions, RR = 1.68, 95%CI: 1.13-2.50, p<0.01 and Neurological illness, RR = 1.42, 95%CI: 0.74-2.72.

"Mild et al. (1998) show significant dose-response relationships for cell phone usage and headaches, dizziness, memory loss, discomfort, fatigue, and loss of concentration. Dose responses were shown for both calls/day and minutes/day. Figures 33 and 34 show the minutes/day graphs for Norway and Sweden, respectively. Norway is dominantly analogue and Sweden digital.

"The analogue phones used in Norway typically have higher SAR levels than the digital phones used in Sweden. The sensation of warmth on an behind the ear is much stronger in Norway. The symptoms reported in Norway are somewhat more prevalent than in Sweden. For example, the Fatigue prevalence in Norway for more than 60 mins per day is 28% and in Sweden it is 20%. The difference is quite marked for all symptoms except Concentration and Memory Loss. These are the same symptoms that have frequently been reported as "Microwave Sickness Syndrome" or "Radiofrequency Sickness Syndrome", Baranski and Czerski (1976) and Johnson-Liakouris (1998). " (27-28)

"Many multiple independent laboratories have shown the ELF and RF/MW radiation causes chromosome aberrations and DNA single- and double-strand damage. These include many dose response relationships and extremely low RF/MW exposure levels including cell phone radiation. Multiple studies also show significantly altered proto oncogenes expression and activity with ELF and RF/MW exposure. This also includes cell phone radiation. Several studies show impairment of the immune system health.

"Since calcium ion efflux and melatonin reduction are established biological effects of EMR exposure from ELF to to RF/MW, impair immune systems should be observed in EMR exposures. Multiple independent evidence is available for RF exposures, down to extremely low chronic mean levels, and many dose response relationships are established to prove that these biological effects from EMR exposure is genotoxic. Significant DNA strand breakage has been observed down to 1 microW/cm², Phillips, et al. (1998), with elevated DNA damage below this. Therefore there is extremely strong that EMR across the spectrum even at very low exposure levels found in the vicinity of cell sites [towers], Figure 45." (35)

"Figure 45. Summary of observed effects, and the mean levels of the exposure for human studies of exposure to electromagnetic radiation. All epidemiological studies occur below the ICNIRP and the New Zealand Standard of allowable exposure." [ http://www.grn.es/electropolucio/cherry600.htm , page 36.]

The following information is from figure 45: "Exposure Level (microW/cm²)" from 0.0000001 to 10000 ['micro' means 10 to the power of negative 6, or 1 divided by 10 to the power of 6, or 1 divided by 10 x 10 x 10 x 10 x 10 x 10, or 1 divided by 1000000, or .000001]

Less than 0.0000001 microW/cm², Quiet Sun: Circadian Rhythm, Arrhythmia, stroke, suicide, sudden cardiac death, Aperiodic brain states, SIDs,

Between 0.0000001 and 0.000001 microW/cm², Optimum (between 0.1 and 0.2 pW/cm² or picoW/cm²) [Schumann Resonances] ['pico' (p) means 10 to the power of negative 12 ,or 1 divided by 1,000,000,000,000, or .000000000001]

At 0.000001 microW/cm², Solar Storm, stress, heart attack, reduced melatonin, migraine headache, epileptic seizures, aggression, manic depression, short-term memory, crime, SIDs.

Between 0.0001 and 0.001 microW/cm²,Children's learning and physical performance impaired with radar exposure in Latvia.

Between 0.001 and 0.01 microW/cm², Dose Response for Neurological effects; DNA damage balanced by Repair

At 0.01 microW/cm², Sleep disturbance, chronic fatigue at Schwarzenburg.

Between 0.01 and 0.1 microW/cm², Residential Cancer

At 1 microW/cm², Occupational Cancer; Amateur Radio Cancer

Between 1 and 10 microW/cm², Dose response for Cancer and reproductive effects especially brain tumor, leukaemia, and miscarriage, (melatonin reduction and calcium ion efflux); Military Cancer; Dose response for heart arrhythmia and heart attack, suicide, multiple sclerosis, brain tumour in electrical industry.

At 10 microW/cm², DNA damage exceeds repair

Between 100 and 1000 microW/cm², ICNIRP RF/MW guideline.

Between 1000 and 10000 microW/cm², Cellphone users get more headaches, memory loss, fatigue, loss of concentration. (Mild et al. [1998])

Between 10000 and 100000 microW/cm², Accelerated Cell damage (Endogenous Tumor, Necrosis Factor, heat shock proteins.); Accelerated Cell death; Death

"These genotoxic biological mechanisms strongly support the large number of epidemiological studies that show significant increases of cancer, neurological, cardiac and reproductive health effects from ELF and RF/MW exposure in military, occupation, and residents studies. Altogether they show a causal relationship from EMR exposure and wide-spread adverse health effects. All of these adverse health effects are shown to be significantly increased in multiple epidemiological studies, indlucing many with significant dose-response relationships. This data puts the situation in a very clear light. There are causal relationships between extremely low mean EMR exposures across the spectrum and a wide range of serious adverse health effects."

Dr. Cherry concludes this study with the prediction concerning cell phones and cell towers that: "Cell phones will highly probably increase many neurological diseases and brain tumours over the next 10 to 20 years.

"Cell sites [towers] will highly probably increase miscarriage, many cancers, many diseases, significant neurological and cardiac diseases and death.

"Thousands of cell sites being installed in communities, are significantly raising the exposure of millions of people to RF/MW at levels that are known to cause serious adverse health effects.

"The problems are going to increase unless rapid, drastic and determined moves are made to reverse the trend and only install new sites in locations that produce extremely low mean residential exposures,

"somewhat less than 10 nW/cm² (0.01 microW/cm²)." [nW is a nanoWatt; nano is 10 to the power of negative 9, or 1 divided by 10 to the power of 9, or .000000001]


Cell Phones: Communications for the 21st Century or a Road to Medical Armageddon? Http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/693579/posts The following was written by| Amy Worthington:

"Prior to the Federal Telecom Act of 1996, it was almost impossible for the cellular communications industry to flourish because there was local control of cell tower siting. Science had already established the ill effects microwaves have on plant and animal life and no one wanted a cell tower in their backyard. Since passage of the federal act, however, cell towers have sprung up everywhere because their siting can no longer be blocked effectively at the local level. Why, in total disregard for published medical and environmental science, did the federal government provide the authority to site cell towers all over the nation? Was it to increase our cellular communications capabilities? Or, does logic and prior experience indicate something more sinister?

"In order to make contact with cell tower transmitters, your cell phone emits powerful microwave signals in the high megahertz or low gigahertz frequencies.

"Microwave energy oscillates at millions to billions of cycles per second. Since WWII, European, Russian and U.S. scientists have known that microwave frequencies are extremely damaging to human tissues. Research in the Journal of Cellular Biochemistry demonstrates that microwave frequencies can cause cancer and other diseases by interfering with cellular DNA and its repair.

"During cell phone conversation, these cancer-causing frequencies deeply penetrate the brain, ear and eye tissues. The eye is most susceptible to microwave damage. While a standby phone is attached to the body, microwave pulses can penetrate vital organs every few minutes. Headsets and radiation mitigators have been proven generally worthless in reducing this radiation exposure. Recent scientific studies confirm that cell phone microwave can:

"* Cause headaches and pressure behind the eyes

* Induce extreme fatigue

* Precipitate cataracts/ eye cancer

* Create burning sensation/rash on the skin

* Damage nerves in the scalp

* Heat the angular gyrus (brain area associated with speech and vision)

* Activate heat shock proteins in the brain (cell stress)

* Induce ringing in the ears, impair sense of smell, cause sensitivity in teeth

* Create joint pain, muscle spasms, tremors

* Cause digestive problems and raise bad cholesterol levels

* Alter the brain's EEG activity during sleep

* Open the blood-brain barrier to virus and toxins (cells leak hemoglobin)

* Reduce the number and efficiency of white blood cells

* Damage blood lymphocyte cells (immune system)

* Cause short term memory loss and difficulty concentrating

* Promote development of Alzheimer's disease

* Stimulate asthma by producing histamine in mast cells

* Stress the endocrine system, especially pancreas, thyroid, ovaries, testes

* Damage chromosomes, specifically the DNA strands

* Induce new cancers and stimulate pre-existing cancers ....

"Microwave is extremely hazardous to children. Parents in many European nations are now warned to keep children away from cell phones. University of Utah researcher found the younger the child, the more radiation is absorbed by the brain.

"Spanish researchers have shown that cell phones can alter electrical activity of a child's brain for hours, causing drastic mood changes and possibly behavior and learning disabilities.

"Findings published in the Journal of Bio-Electric Magnetics warn that mobile phone emissions may damage human embryos. Pregnant women are advised to be wary of mobile phones.

"The effect of microwave radiation inside your vehicle is especially dangerous. Volkswagen of Europe warns that cell phone usage inside a car can be ""injurious to health due to the extremely high electromagnetic fields generated.""

"This is because a cell phone may increase its field strength up to 10 times to maintain communications within the metallic cage of an auto. Studies in England show that drivers talking on a cell phone are actually more impaired in function and reaction time than drunks.

"The telecommunications industry and federal regulatory agencies design their own 'studies' to conclude that having a microwave transmitter on your head is safe. However, many people claim to be falling ill from heavy cell phone usage. Numerous cancer-related lawsuits are now being filed against both government agencies and the cell phone industry.

"Cell phones today are what tobacco was 40 years ago.....

"And don't forget to check out your cordless phone. If it has a marking that reads 900 megahertz or 2.4 gigahertz, it emits the same microwave radiation as cell phones.

"Write to: guru@emfguru.org and ask for free e-mail updates on cell phone/tower studies and litigation." (Worthington, Amy. "Cell Phones: Communications for the 21stCentury or a Road to Medical Armageddon?" Http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/693579/posts )

Children Are More Vulnerable to Radiation and Cell Phones

Dr. George Carlo writes the following about the greater vulnerability of children to radiation and mobile phones:

"The radiation plume that emanates from a cell phone antenna penetrates much deeper into the heads of children than adults. And, once, it penetrates children's skulls it enters their brains and eyes at an absorption rate far greater than it does in adults.

"Dr. Om Gandhi, a highly respected scientist at the University of Utah, did that study in 1996 and found that the differences in the rates of penetration into the heads of five-year-old children, ten-year-old children, and adults were especially shocking. Gandhi's study compared the average specific absorption rate of radiation (measured in milliwatts per kilogram, or mW/kg) in the three age groups. Gandhi found that the radiation abssorption rates inside the brain (in mW/kg) were:

*7.84 in an adult

*19.77 in a ten-year-old child

*33.12 in a five-year-old child.

"Radiation absorption rates in the fluid of the eye were:

*3.3 in an adult

*18.38 in a ten-year-old child

40.18 in a five-year-old child

"Radiation absorption rates in the lens of the eye were

*1.34 in an adult

*6.93 in a ten-year-old child

*15.6 in a five-year-old child

"Finally, radiation absorption rates in the connective tissue of the eye were:

*1.77 in an adult

*9.8 in a ten-year-old child

*19.69 in a five-year-old child

"These differences in exposure are profoundly large, and signify potentially serious health risks to children from radio waves - risks far more serious than for adults. This concern also must apply to genetic damage and cancer. The current science strongly suggests that genetic damage is associated with exposure to radio waves from the antennas of mobile telephones. Most alarming are the very consistent data worldwide showing micronucleus formation in blood cells following radio wave exposure." (Carlo [2001] 216-217).

The following is a picture of actual thermal images of the depth of penetration of radiation entering the brain of an adult, a 10 year-old children, and a 5 year-old from a cell/cordless phone. These images were presented by Senator Hayden on April 24, 200 to the Senate Business and Professions Committee.

These thermal images are found at http://spot.colorado.edu/~maziara/brain2.jpg or at http://thegeomancer.netfirms.com/cellphones.htm

These images published on "The Geomancer" website are accompanied by the following caption: "The depth of penetration is markedly more in the child than the adult. Proving radiation from cell phones penetrates the human brain."

There are directions on how to use cell phones more safely, e.g.: "Cell Phone Safety Tips." Http://cbsnews.cbs.com/stories/1999/12/03/bradcasts/main728883.shtml (Link37) . But cell phones under any circumstance are unsafe. These cell phones in use by millions are exempt from any standards of radiofrequency radiation. If safety standards were imposed on cellular phones, the phones would be unusable.

Mobile phones confirmed as a cause of earlier Alzheimer's onset, and damage to memory and learning ability in mammals. New research, "from Lund University Hospital in Sweden, irrefutably links mobile phone radiation with damage to the neurons in the brain.

"The study looked at the effects of radiation on the brains of developing laboratory rats, who were bombarded for only two hours with radiation equivalent to that from typical mobile phones and base stations.

Figure 1 is at http://spot.colorado.edu/~maziara/brain1.bmp , or at http://pages.britishlibrary.net/orange/biologeffects.htm , or at http://www.marianneblank.de/mut/Salford%20Studie.pdf .

Figure Legends

Fig. 1. (a) Slightly enlarged cross section of central parts of the brain of an unexposed control rat, stained for albumin, which appears brownish in the central inferior parts of the brain, the hypothalamus, a normal feature.

(b) As (a) for an RF exposed rat, 2 mW/kg average whole body SAR, stained for albumin, which appears brownish in multiple small foci representing leakage from many vessels.

[Legend for fig. 2 given, but pictures not available. See http://www.marianneblank.de/mut/Salford%20Studie.pdf . Fig. 2. (a) Row of nerve cells in a section of the pyramidal cell band of the hippocampus in a RF exposed rat. Among the normal big and pale blue nerve cells there are interspersed black and shrunken nerve cells, so called dark neurons . Microscopical picture stained with Cresyl violet, high magnification

(b) The cortex of an RF exposed rat, showing normal nerve cells pale blue, intermingled with abnormal, black and shrunken " dark neurons " at all depths of the cortex but least in the superficial upper layers. Microscopical picture stained with Cresyl violet, high magnification.

"Professor Leif Salford said: 'We had already shown that mobile phone radiation can allow harmful proteins and toxins to pass through the blood-brain barrier in rats.'

"'Now we also see a significant degree of damage to neurons in the brains of adolescent rats.'

"There is no supportable reason for citizens not to deduce that the same damage to brain cells happens in the brains of (especially young developing) human brains. 'If this effect is transferred to young humans the effects can be terrifying.' said Professor Leif Salford.

"'We can see reduced brain reserve capacity', meaning those who would normally have got Alzheimer's or dementia in old age will get it much earlier, those who would not 'normally' have got Alzheimer's or dementia during their lifespan are at greater risk of doing so, and that both will at best have a significantly diminished number of non dysfunctional brain cells and brain sub-systems throughout their lives." Http://pages.britishlibrary.net/orange/biologeffects.htm See also Leif Salford, "Nerve cell damage in mammalian brain after exposure to microwaves from GSM mobile phones," http://www.marianneblank.de/mut/Salford%20Studie.pdf

Maisch, Don. "Discussion Paper concerning the Validity of the Science, Promotion and Sales of EMF 'Protective Devices'." Http://members.iinet.net.au/~emfacts/devices/index.html

Radiation from Popular Cellular Phones. [SAR readings by manufacturer and model number for a number of phones] http://www.bemi.se/founder/clips/cellularSAR.html (Link46)

CS Mobile Phone Gas Pump Fires. http://www.samsgarage.com/cs%20mobile%20phone%20gas%20pump%20fires.htm (Link36)

Another cause of harm of cell phones is that they may speed up the brain.:

:Mobile phones may cause damage to health by speeding up the brain's response times, a British scientist told a conference on Friday.

"As consumer concerns mount that prolonged mobile phone use could lead to problems ranging from headaches to tumors, a recent study showing an alarming rate of brain cancer in some cellphone users is helping swing scientific opinion in Britain.

"Dr. Alan Preece, head of Biophysics at Bristol Oncology Center, is among a group of scientists becoming increasingly convinced that radiation from cellphones triggers chemical processes in the body that may be harmful.

"Six separate studies now indicate that response times speed up when people are exposed to radio frequency signals from mobiles phones.

"'The response time has improved because of stress proteins, which are switched on by a gene.' ...

"Stress proteins are produced when body temperature rises, but Preece and other scientists said they can also occur purely as a result of RF signals, when body temperature is normal." ( "Mobile Phones May Do Harm by Speeding up Brain," (Link76) )

Cell phones can also ruin your sex life. See: "Beware - Using a Mobile Phone Can Ruin Your Sex Life," (Link61) .

III. International Standards for Cell Phone Radiofrequency/Microwave Radiation.

Exposure standards for many countries are much less than the standards for the U.S. and Canada. In the case of Salzberg, Austria, they are 5800 TIMES GREATER in the United States than in Salzberg. The following is information is written by Gary Brown:

"In a letter to the FCC (See Attachment D), Margo T. Oge, Director, Office of Radiation and Indoor Air with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) made the following responses concerning ANSI standards, including ANSI-C95 1-1982.

"'Therefore the generalization that the 1992ANSI/IEEE guidelines protect human beings from harm by any mechanism is not justified.' The 1992 ANSI/IEEE standard is based on literature published before 1986, except for a few papers on shock and burn. While studies continue to be published describing biological responses to non-thermal ELF modulated RF radiation, the effects information is not yet sufficient to be used as a basis for exposure criteria to protect the public against adverse human health effects.'

"Norbert Hankin serves as Chairman for the Radiofrequency Interagency work group (RFIAWG). RFIAWG is comprised of several U.S.agencies including FDA/Radiation Biology Branch, National Institute for Occupational Safety, EPA, OSHA Health Response Team, and NTIA/Department of Commerce. On June 17, 1999, the Radio Frequency Inter-Agency Work Group (RFIAWG) issued a Guidelines Statement that concluded the present RF/MW standard: In particular, the RFIAWG criticized the existing standards as not taking into account chronic, as opposed to acute exposures, modulated or pulsed radiation (digital or pulsed RFR), time-averaged measurements that may erase the unique characteristics of an intensity-modulated RF radiation that may be responsible for reported biologic effects, and stated the need for a comprehensive review of long-term, low-level exposure studies, neurological-behavioral effects and micronucleus assay studies (showing genetic damage from low-level microwave RFR).

"'The existing federal standards are deficient in critical areas and need to be updated. The areas of improvement where changes are needed include:
a) selection of an adverse effect level for chronic exposures not based on tissue heating and considering modulation effects;
b) recognition of different safety criteria for acute and chronic exposures at non-thermal or low-intensity levels;
c) recognition of deficiencies in using time-averaged measurements of RF/MW that does not differentiate between intensity-modulated RF and continuous wave (CW) exposure, and therefore does not adequately protect the public.'" (Brown [2000] 5; http://members.iinet.net.au/~emfacts/wlans.html )

"A study conducted by Professor Leif Salford (1997), neurologist, stated: "We saw the opening of the blood-brain barrier even after a short exposure to radiation at the same level as mobile phones. We are not sure yet whether this is a harmful effect, but it seems that molecules such as proteins and toxins can pass out of the blood while the phone is switched on and cross into the brain. Within two minutes of exposure, the rat's brain tissue was found to be opened up to proteins and toxins contained in the blood after the defense mechanism was disabled. " Salford found that the blood brain barrier opened at exposure levels 4,000 times lower than the current FCC guidelines. " (Brown [2000] 8: http://members.iinet.net.au/~emfacts/wlans.html ).

"Seventeen scientists of international standing have signed the 1998 Vienna Resolution, that the biological effects from low-intensity exposures are scientifically established and undermine the validity of current safety guidelines; while during June of 2000, in Salzburg, Austria, an international conference was convened to discuss radiation studies relevant to wireless communications and data." (Brown [2000] 9: http://members.iinet.net.au/~emfacts/wlans.html ).

The following chart is quoted from Brown:

"International Standards for Cell Phone Radiofrequency/Microwave Radiation

"Exposure standards for public exposure to RF/MW radiation at cell phone frequencies in other countries is, in some cases, substantially lower than the US and Canadian limits (Table 1). The World Health Organization EMF Research Program is involved in a multi-year effort to review RF/MW health effects and make recommendations for exposure standards. In the interim, other countries around the world show considerable variation in what they consider safe exposure levels:

· Saltzberg (pulsed)................................ 0.1 microwatts per centimeter squared

· China...................................................6.6 microwatts per centimeter squared

· Russia..................................................10 microwatts per centimeter squared

· Italy.....................................................10 microwatts per centimeter squared

· Switzerland..........................................4.2 microwatts per centimeter squared

· Auckland, New Zealand......................50 microwatts per centimeter squared

· United States..................................around 580 microwatts per centimeter squared

· Canada............................................around 580 microwatts per centimeter squared

"There is substantial controversy among regulatory agencies in the federal government over the RF/MW exposure standards now in effect. A growing body of scientific evidence has linked RF/MW exposure to biological effects and health effects at levels lower than current FCC RF/MW standards allow. With respect to pulsed RFR, amplitude-modulated RFR and chronic low-level exposure there is uncertainty about risk, and no presumptive assurance or warranty of safety can be made. " (Brown [2000] 10-11: http://members.iinet.net.au/~emfacts/wlans.html ).

The standard for Salzberg, Austria, is for pulsed microwaves which includes digital cell phones, and the kind of cell phone towers in both applications in Longmont that are the subject of this website.

Great Britain has just made stricter their standard for RF/MW exposure by 80%. See Derbyshire, David. "Radiation rules made stricter 'as precaution'." (Filed: 31/03/2004) (Link40)

And China is soon to lower their standard. See "Cellular Industry Condemns China Plan to Impose Strictest Radiation Standards." Http://www.health-concerns.org/health_concerns/survey_news.asp ; "China radiation law could fry mobile industry: A steep cap on mobile phone radiation could mean a £1.6bn bill for mobile phone makers, ' (Link80) ; Consumer Group Says China Cell Radiation Levels Unsafe. Http://www.cprnews.com/articles.cfm?cat=4&id=109

Sse also: Hyland, G.J. "On the Inadequacy of Existing Safety Guidelines." Http://members.iinet.net.au/~emfacts/mobiles/hyland2.html

IV. Cell Phone Antennae on or near School Buildings or Property; Site Proposal at 1201 S. Sunset. A Child's Brain Is Much More Easily Penetrated by Radiation.

Not only is this proposed site close to schools, it is located right by the Roll-o-Rena where children and teenagers congregate.

The Career Development Center (CDC), Olde Columbine High School, and Open Door already have one 100 ft. microwave PCS monopole cell tower with three different cell phone carriers--at least twelve antennae already, with 6 more panels already approved in 2001 to be mounted in the future. The last 6 panels were added at the 70 ft. level. The next 6 panels will be mounted at the 60 ft. level. This school is also just next door to Sunset Middle School.

Skyline High School already has a PCS microwave cell phone antenna attached to its building.

The parents of all these children have not been informed of all these cell towers and antennae, have not been warned of all the possible dangers, and have not been part of the decision-making process to protect their children, either with past phone towers WHICH NEED TO BE REMOVED or the currently proposed PCS microwave cell phone tower across from CDC. This application NEEDS TO BE DENIED.


"At University of Washington, Lai and Singh (1996) showed single and double DNA breaks and long- and short-term memory loss in laboratory animals exposed to radiofrequency radiation. Lai said, "because mobile phone RF penetrates deeper into a child's brain, more brain tissue would be exposed." He added that not all brain cells have been developed in children, with some cells in the cerebellum (in the back of the brain) taking 10 years to develop. Cumulative damages in DNA may in turn affect cell functions. DNA damage that accumulates in cells over a period of time may be the cause of slow onset diseases, such as cancer (See Attachment I). The Motorola funded group headed by Joseph Roti Roti was unsuccessful at duplicating Lai's findings when using a different, less sensitive method to measure DNA breaks. However, during his study Roti Roti unexpectedly found an effect from the radiofrequency radiation (an oncogene, genes related to cancer development)." (Brown [2000] 8)

"Research has shown that exposure to microwave emissions from a transmission tower demonstrate significant differences in visual reaction time and reduced memory function in students in a close by school (Chiang, 1989). A study by Dr. Lai at the University of Washington (1996, 2000) showed long- and short-term memory loss in rats from 2.45 GHz microwaves." (Brown [2000] 8).

Boulder Valley School District allows NO cell antennae AT ALL of any kind on any of their school buildings or property. The City of Boulder allowsNOmonopoles or other free standing cell towers AT ALL in their city. The city of Nederland (Boulder County, CO) has NO cell phone antennae AT ALLof any description in their city.

Other school districts have NO cell antennae AT ALLof any kind on any of their school buildings or on school property: e.g., the Los Angeles School District in California (Link 26) whose superintendent is Roy Romer, former governor of Colorado, all the schools in the city of San Francisco, California (1996) (Link2) , all the schools of the province of British Columbia in Canada (Link23) , and others such as Ossining High School in New York (see below) (Link9) . The B.C. ban includes property near schools: "a moratorium on Cell towers NEARor ON schools throughout our entire province (Link23) ."

"The county of Palm Beach, FL [1997], the state of California, and the country of New Zealand [1996] have all prohibited cellular antennas near schools due to safety concerns" (see below) (Link9) ; see also (Link2) . The school district of Palm Beach County Florida has had an indefinite moratorium on cell towers since 1987 (Link2)

In Nebraska (1996), First Cellular Omaha withdrew its application to build a transmission tower near Sunset Hills Elementary School after community protests (Link2) .

In Illinois, opponents successfully blocked a proposal by PrimeCo Corporation to erect a cellular phone antenna near the Aurora Christian School [1997] (Link2) .

In Ohio (1997), opponents against cell towers near school property have "cited the cases of lead in paint and asbestos in ceilings, both once thought harmless, and used in schools later to be proven health hazards... [Also in Ohio] at least a dozen communities neighboring Ann's Pepper Pike are challenging wireless carriers who wish to erect similar towering facilities (Link2) ."

In Laurelhurst, Washington, the school board opposed the placing of a cellular phone antenna in the belltower of the building of a Catholic school, Villa Academy. The president of the board of trustees said, "We are not in the business of providing antenna sites for cellular companies - We are in the business of education (Link2)

Parents in Lansing Michiganhave successfully opposed cell towers near school property. The parents are now taking the cell tower issue, in the form of a resolution to the national PTA (Link2) .

In East Providence, Rhode Island(1999), residents successfully opposed a cell tower application at the city-owned Grassy Plains Playground in Riverside. State Representative Rose Larise, R-Dist. 87 is sponsoring legislation barring wireless communications towers from public parks and playgrounds (Link2) .

In the United Kingdom(1999), prohibitions against erecting cell mast towers have been imposed in Oxfordshire, Bedfordshire, Warwickshire, Norfolk,Essex, West Sussex, Hampshire, Leicestershire and Northamptonshire (Link2) .

In Scotland(1999), experts from Scotland's largest health board have warned local authorities against erecting mobile phone masts on schools as fears over links to cancer and child leukaemia grow; the Greater Glasgow Health Board is recommending a temporary ban on putting masts on council properties (Link2) .

In Ontario, Canada, parents successfully removed Bridlewood Elementary School away from power lines. The Carleton Board of Education, also responsible for Bridlewood Elementary School, have had an cell phone antenna removed from a school in Kanata (Link8)

SOS - Sprint Off Schools has been started by the Cherry Creek School District of Colorado, http://www.sprintoffschools.com , and is in court against Sprint to keep cell phone antennae off their schools.

The 11th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in Atlanta overturned a cell tower ruling made earlier by U.S. District Judge Sheron Blackburn, and instead, ruled in favor of the community who wanted no cell phone antennae on school property (Link4) . The cellular telephone tower was located next to Grissom High School in Huntsville, Alabama. And the federal appeals court ruled that the tower had to be removed by the Bostoncompany American Tower Corporation. Huntsvilleattorney Michael Fees, who represents the city in the case, said that "the 11th circuit's ruling is an indication the court will listen to communities and their concerns about aesthetics and safety." The tower was in the middle of a residential area of single-family homes. One of these residents said an appraiser had told him that his house had declined in value $20,000 because of the tower.

In Paris, France, two phone mast transmitting antennae were removed from the Ernest-Bizet school after eight cases of cancer were confirmed among children in the district (Link8) (Link11) . Karen Barrat is quoted as commenting on the Telecom giant Orange: "Orange know[s] perfectly well that these so-called safety guidelines are irrelevant because they don't refer to the biological effects of microwave radiation that we're all worried about. They can say it in French, English or Esperanto. It's rubbish in any language (Link11) ."

Seattle, Washington, has three websites to protest cell phone antennae in their neighborhoods: http://nocelltower.org , http://www.crmdata.net/nocelltower/index.html , http://crmdata.net/nocelltower/documents/School_Letter_template.doc (Link12) . One of the cell towers proposed is 53 ft. high. Their concerns are for safety first, and decreased property values second.

Are our children any less precious than their children? Are their futures so much less important?

V. PCS 40 Ft. Microwave Monopole Cell Tower Base Station Proposed for 9thand Baker St.

With respect to the monopole proposed for 9th and Baker, a 40' tower has much greater ground radiation than a much taller tower(Cleveland in Levitt [2000] 124).

In addition the strength of the signal much be increased greatly to penetrate all the surrounding trees. The dwelling and school structures at a height level with the antennae because of higher terrain are not safe. This includes the structures to the northeast of the proposed monopole site: Skyline High School and the surrounding expensive homes.

The proposed monopole is TOO CLOSE to the residential areas to the north, south, east, and west including the mobile home site to the southeast (Sprint did not even calculate this distance on its proposal. It just left this site off its map). It is also much too close to the offices to the west, north, and south. This land for the proposed monopole cell tower base station will be leased by an ABSENTEE LANDLORD. The recommended distance for any cell antenna is AT LEAST 1500 FEETfrom any structure where people may congregate. If ADDITIONALcell towers are added at a later date, the recommended distance isAT LEAST SEVERAL MILES.

This proposed monopole is TOO EXPENSIVE. The owners of each residence will that to give up at least $26,000 to $300,000 to $1000000 for two most expensive properties to fund this PCS antenna base station. See section on Property Devaluation below. Multiply this by the listed 200 residences, the total is $6,400,000 to $42,000,000. These figures only calculate the loss in property value. It does not estimate the loss in property taxes, the loss in revenue to the businesses leasing the buildings on the cell tower site. It won't be safe to park in the parking lot or to work in these buildings. And how will anyone estimate the cost of lost human life, suffering, and productivity? And who will pay for the resulting law suits? Huge lawsuits have already been filed by the same law firm that broke the tobacco industry ("Huge lawsuits over mobile phones." Http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/1090343.stm ).

VI. Legislation and Case Law

The Supreme Court's avoidance since 2000 of the issue of the control of local governments over land-use in the matter of the siting of cell phone towers is seen as a blow to the cell phone industry. ("Supreme Court Avoids Tower Dispute," Http://www.emfguru.org/Law/court-dispute.html )

The Colorado Legislature, on April 27, 2000, resolved to oppose the FCC when it comes to land-use issues:

"WHEREAS, In the United States, control over individual land use decisions is firmly vested in local governments, through statutory delegation from state governments: and

"WHEREAS, The FCC is barred by the 10th Amendment to the United States Constitution from attempting to preempt decisions made by local governments on individual land use applications because the United States Congress has not directed or authorized the FCC to preempt such local decisions; and

"WHEREAS, The FCC lacks not only the authority, but also the expertise and any adopted standards to second-guess and invalidate local government land use decisions; and

WHEREAS, Any attempt by the FCC to preempt local government land use decision-making in this manner would represent an illegal, unauthorized, and unjustified attack on state- and local- government land use authority; now, therefore,

"Be It Resolved by the Senate of the Sixty-second General Assembly of the State of Colorado, the House of Representatives concurring herein:

"That the General Assembly of the State of Colorado hereby encourages the FCC not to preempt local government land use decision-making and state judicial processes, thus overriding local and state government authority..." (Colorado Resolution against FCC Preemption [Carney] http://www.emfguru.org/Law/colorado-fcc.html ). See also: Colorado Legislature's Resolution against FCC. Http://www.emfguru.org/Law/colorado.html

As recently as March of 2004, a Jefferson County District judge ruled "that county commissioners must reopen hearings on a high-power digital television facility on Lookout Mountain." See: Able, Charley. (March 27, 2004). "Reopen TV tower hearings, judge rules: Judge Rules More Hearings Needed on Lookout Mountain Tower Proposal." (Link119) .

For more information on Senator Leahy's bills and the Corresponding House Bills and their sponsors see http://www.emrnetwork.org/legislation/legislation.htm and (Link3)

U.S. Senator Patrick Leahy (D-VT) has introduced legislation to restore local authority in tower-siting by repealing a 1996 law that gave sole jurisdiction to the Federal Communications Commission.

He also has filed an amicus brief urging the U.S. Supreme Court to hear a case challenging the constitutionality of federal law which preempts local control over the location of telecommunications towers. Http://leahy.senate.gov/press/200012/001205.html

The Second Circuit ruled against Sprint in Sprint Spectrum, LP v. Willoth (176 F.3d 630 (2d Cir. 1999). The court found that "while state and local governments must allow providers to fill gaps in the ability of wireless phones to access land-lines, they may reject an application to construct a wireless facility in an under-served area if the service gap can be filled by 'less intrusive means'". Http://www.nyenvlaw.com/Koegel/cellTower.htm .

U.S. Court of Appeals, 3d Circuit. Cellular Telephone Co. v. Zoning Board of Adjustment of the Borough of Ho-Ho-Kus, No. 98-6484. The court ruled against the cell phone company:

"[T]he [Act's] 'effect of prohibiting' clause [does not] encompass every individual zoning denial simply because it has the effect of precluding a specific provider from providing wireless services... To do so would provide wireless service providers with a wildcard that would trump any adverse zoning decision...

"[A] provider whose application has been denied...must show two things. First...that its facility will fill an existing significant gap in the ability of remote users to access the national telephone network... The provider's showing on this issue will...have to include evidence that the area the new facility will serve is not already served by another provider...

"Second, the...applicant must also show that the manner in which it proposed to fill the significant gap in service is the least intrusive on the values that the denial sought to serve." Http://www.feb.se/Bridlewood/NEWS1999.HTM

Other case law is cited by James Hobson in Levitt (2000) 142-157.

Whitney North Seymour, Jr., Esq., filed a "Petition for Writ of Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit (Levitt [2000] 239-274)." The questions presented question the constitutionality of the Federal Communications Act of 1996:

"1. Whether Congress, by requiring local zoning boards to approve the construction of cellular phone towers without regard to the health impact of high frequency radiation, has commandeered legislative processes of the states to administer a federal program, in violation of the Tenth Amendment as interpreted by this Court in New York v. United States, 505 U.S. 144 (1992) and Printz v. United States, 521 U.S. 898 (1997)." (Levitt [2000] 240).

Case law is also discussed by Levitt )2000) 42-44.

Huge lawsuits over mobile phones. Http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/1090343.stm

VII. Additional Hazards

Levitt (2000) in Appendix E (pp.321-325) lists bibliography for the following hazards: battery hazards, environmental hazards of battery chemicals, and lightning hazards and liability related to wireless facilities. Another hazard is electromagnetic interference:

"One of the problems peculiar to all electronic technologies is electromagnet (EM) interference. All electrical and electronic technologies emit EM disturbances that can interfere with the correct operation of radio-communications or other electronics. Modern electronic technologies are in general more likely to cause such disturbances than those they replace.

"All electronic technologies can also suffer from degraded functionality (including complete failure)when exposed to EM disturbances. Modern electronic technologies are in general more likely to be susceptible in this way than those they replace....

"Electronic technology is increasingly used in safety-related applications. Consequently, errors and missoperation of electronic devices due to inadequate EMC can result in hazardous situations with an increased risk of harm to people's health and safety." (Levitt [2000] 324)

VIII. Devaluation of Property

Devaluation of property is estimated from $20,000 to $50,000 and from 11% to 40% to 100% for property owners living near a PCS base station. Levitt [(2000) 321-322] has a bibliography section dealing with real estate devaluation.

In particular or in addition see David R. Bolton and Dent A. Sick, "Power Lines and Property Values: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly," http://www.powerlinefacts.com/Power_Lines_and_Property_Values.htm (Link30)

Leslie Richardson, Sharon Nakamura and Jon Gould, "Cell Towers Shouldn't Define a Neighborhood," (Link28) . Bond, Sandy, Si-Yeoul Mun, Pornsiri Sakornvanasak, and Nick McMahon, "The Impact of Cellular Phone Base Station Towers on Property Values," Ninth Pacific-Rim Real Estate Society Conference, Brisbane, Australia 19-22 January 2003. Http://business.unisa.edu.au/prres/Proceedings/Proceedings2003/Bond_The_Impact_Of_Cellular_Phone_Base_Station_Towers_On_Property_Values.pdf (Link29)

According to Binhi, "realtor brokers have begun to take into consideration the electromagnetic factor in their financial estimations of real estate objects" ([2002] 8). Binhi cites Lathrop (1996).

Vernon Township, New Jersey, on September 19, 2000, voted unanimously voted to reject a cell tower based on the testimony from a Real Estate appraisor that property values would decline as much as 13%. One council member, Mr. Kensek, commented that "ordinances in this town are established for a purpose to protect the residents and should be upheld." (Vernon Township Zoning Board of Adjustment. Minutes. Continued Special Regular Meeting, September 19, 2000, (Link42) . [The distances from the 40' proposed cell phone tower at 9thand Baker to bordering residences in Longmont are even less than the proposed cell tower in Vernon Township which the town planners rejected.]

"The residential units on Up-A-Way Drive and Els Way are in close proximity to the proposed tower sit. The closest home east of the subject property is approximately 650 feet to the rear lot line, and to the west 340 feet from the proposed site. The homes on Els Way would be approximately 1000+/- feet from the proposed site." (Link42) .

The houses were in the range in price of $25,000 and $350,000.

The real estate expert who testified on behalf of the residents was Howard Schottenfeld, sho is "a State Certified General Real Estate Appraiser in the State of New Jersey, licensed Real Estate Broker and Certified Tax Assessor, MIA Affiliate with the Appraisal Institute, has been qualified as an expert witness in many superior courts in New Jersey, and received his education from the Appraisal Institute." (Vernon Township Zoning Board of Adjustment. Minutes. Continued Special Regular Meeting, August 29, 2000, (Link41) ).

The following is his recorded testimony (I have changed the italics to bold):

"Mr. Schottenfeld stated he was retained several months ago by a group of property owners to appraise residential property values that would be affected by cell towers. Howard Schottenfeld informed the property owners that a particular residential dwelling, abutting the proposed site, would be picked out at random and appraised. The property would be appraised as if the tower presently exists. Mr. Schottenfeld stated he used an amount of appraisal literature taken from the Appraisal Journal involving related topics and methodologies used by Appraisers. Of the information obtained two to three pertinent articles were taken and were included in the addendum of the appraisal. The appraisals were completed June 19, 2000. The article states homeowners who adjoin high voltage power lines have reported that their EMF affected homes are unsellable at any price. An appraiser should easily be able to connect the market value diminishing of the property to the properties fear of EMF. It is entirely possible to include after an EMF study that most parcels of EMF affected property will have a restricted resale value, and thus there will be damages in the full-indicated value found by adjusting comfortable properties not affected by high voltage power lines. The journal eludes this statement to a "paired sales" analysis. The journal identifies the large structures namely water towers, hightension wires, high-tension towers, and cell towers as external obsolescence. ...

"Mr. Schottenfeld stated the real estate journal recommended that 'paired sales analysis methodology be used. In this instance, the analysis was used in the event that the tower exists.....

"The difference in the "paired sales" or discount paid for the affected sales range from a low 11.32% to a high of 16.67%. Mr. Schottenfeld stated the average is at 13%. The discount paid by purchasers is affected by similar external obsolescence (i.e. water tower, high-tension wires, and so forth). The range demonstrates the perception stigma in the real estate market created by the external obsolescence whether it is 11% or 17% there is a discount paid on affected properties.

"External obsolescence structures would be more of an "eyesore" and less desirable to Vernon residents. The 13% would translate into a higher number in Vernon as opposed to Livingston. Mr. Weiler asked if a similar comparison could be found dealing with cell towers; and Mr. Schottenfeld said he could not find concrete information regarding to cell towers only to high-tension wires. The appraisal literature indicates that the methodologies are exactly the same and the stigma to the real estate market and buyers perception is the same.

"David DiPietro asked if there are identical houses on the market which one is easier to sell over than the other; and Mr. Schottenfeld said the unaffected property."

A financial planner also testified. His testimony is as recorded:

"Mr. Contreri stated the purpose of his testimony is to establish to the Board the effect of the reduction of property values on long-term planning. Mr. Contreri testified he is a Financial Planner and has been in practice for 22 years. He has found through this type of business that a number of individuals rely heavily on the value of their property as part of their retirement savings. The price of homes near Lake Pochung area is in the range of $150,000.00 to $500,000.00. Mr. Contreri discussed the financial loss in property value the owners would undertake at a rate of 7 or 10 percent over the twenty-year period. The estimate loss would be at $163,000 to $284,000.00." (Link41) ).

The distances from the 40' proposed cell phone tower at 9thand Baker to bordering residences in Longmont are even less than the proposed tower in Vernon Township which the town planners rejected.

IX. Absentee Landlord

The owners of the land of both proposed monopole PCS microwave antenna base stations do not live on that land and will not have to suffer the exposure to this microwave radiation 24 hours a day. In the case of microwave antenna on or near school property, those making the decisions, either the St Vrain Valley Board of Education or administrators, also do not live on the land where this exposure occurs.

The concept of absentee landlord also refers to the problem posed by the applicant being a tower builder not the actual service provider. Many communities DO NOT approve applications unless they are submitted by the actual service provider. The application for the cell tower at 9thand Baker is a tower builder, AFL Telecommunications, not Sprint itself. "Only allow a tower if the applicant is a service provider. The Telecomm Act preempts local zoning for service providers - not tower builders! Some towns require that the tower owner, service provider, and land owner - all of whom may be different entities - be signatories to, and responsible for an application, otherwise the application is incomplete and can be turned down." (Blair in Levitt [2001] 206)

X. Insurance Issues.

The microwave monopole cell tower proposed by Sprint at 9th and Baker has an intermediary firm to handle the siting of the tower: AFL Telecommunications. Many communities refuse to accept applications from an intermediary firm. This is because an intermediary firm keeps Sprint from being liable for any physical property damage, any medical conditions caused by the microwave radiation or for any other reason (such as if the enormous batteries leak fluid, or the pole topples over, or a child climbs the tower and fries first his eyes and then the rest of him), or for any death. Communities need to include as part of the application the requirement that the telecommunications carrier, in this case Sprint, carry adequate insurance to cover any liability caused by the cell tower site.

Lloyds of London, for example, refuses to insure any telecommunications carrier for this kind of liability for any amount of money. Http://www.grn.es/electropolucio/omega248.htm This shows how unsafe these microwave antennae are and how inevitable medical problems result from close location to residences, schools, work spaces, and places where people congregate. See also Brown; ?

Levitt sums up the liability issue:

"Liability issues can be significant for municipalities and individual site owners alike. Keep in mind that the industry has been successfully shifting liability away from itself and onto others in numerous ways - including rigged science, controlling the standards-setting committees, buying influence at the political level, co-opting key regulatory agencies, and getting industry-friendly riders through the E-911 bill, to name a few.

"Unbeknownst to most people at the local level, this liability has been shifted downward to those making land-use decisions. The federal preemptions against taking the environmental effects of RF in consideration do not necessarily protect local officials who can still be named individually in lawsuits for poor siting decisions. Despite the preemptions, it is still their legal obligation to do everything possible to protect the health, safety, and welfare of the community and its citizens.

"The same is true of churches and private landowners that lease space to telecom providers. There is no statute of limitations on health claims for EMF damage. Everyone with a stake in siting decisions can be sued if adverse health effects turn up. With more and more science circling around the problem and coming up with significant data, such siting decisions near populated areas are lawsuits-waiting-to-happen." (Levitt [2000] 44). See also Levitt (2000) 206.

Many insurance carriers have gone to court to because they do not want to insure cell phone manufacturers. See Insurer Files Cell Phone Coverage Lawsuits. (Link65) . Ryle, Sarah. "Insurers balk at risks of phones. Lloyds of London refuses to underwrite cell phones." Http://members.iinet.net.au/~emfacts/mobiles/ins.html . Fourth Circuit Finds Duty to Defend Cell Phone Manufacturers (Nixon Peabody LLP). (Link134)

XI. Teleports.

A teleport is "A facility utilizing stellite dishes of greater than 2.0 meters in diameter designed to uplink to communications satellites for transmitting in the C-Band (4 - 6 Ghz) spectrum (Blair in Levitt [2001] 200)."

"Teleports create a lot of radiation, are not protected in the Telecommunications Act, and you don't want them anywhere near residential areas (Blair in Levitt [2001] 201)."

"Cable TV facilities, which often use satellite transmission, typically are areas filled with parabolic dishes, some ground mounted, some pole mounted. Some are receivers; some are relay dishes that retransmit signals to other areas.

"Satellite uplinks are another matter. They transmit signals from from the earth to satellites in space. Often they are large round-mounted dishes that require a lot of power and frequently have substantial leakage and radiation lobes around them. Such uplinks are used by TV stations, telephone companies, private industry, and the entire Internet system, among others (Levitt [1995] 365)."

In Longmont we already have too much radiation in the downtown area. There are numerous cell phone towers on Main Street in the form of flag poles. Comcast has a facility between Kimbark and Emery, between 4th and 5th. They certainly advertise their uplink satellite dishes over the Internet . There are four satellite dishes and a number of antennae at this installation in Longmont which is VERY close to some houses, the Public Library, and the Catholic school. The Longmont AM radio station is only a few blocks away.

I asked months ago for a listing of all the cell phone towers in Longmont from the city Planning Department, but this list has never been forthcoming.

Boulder has NO Comcast facility at all in their city limits. They are serviced by a facility in Louisville.

XII. Necessary Technical Inclusions Which Are ABSENT from the Providers' Applications.

The following technical descriptions should be included in both Sprint's and Verizon's Applications:


1. What is the system going to operate at? Analog, IDen, CDMA, TDMA, or GSM?

2. Where is the Radiated Propagation analysis pattern?

3. Where is the Radiated Spreadsheets, showing Power Output of one sector antenna?

4. What is the Polarization''s of the antennas?

5. What is the Maximum Power Radiated per channel?

6. What is the DB Gain of the antennas?

7. What is the Amplifying Equipment make and model numbers?

8. What are the Operating Transmit and Receive Frequencies?

9. What are the ERP and EIRP of the main lobe radiating antenna pattern?

10. What are the Minimum Power Levels at ground level with Minimum channels?

11. What are the Maximum Power Levels at ground level with Maximum channels?

12. What is the Minimum number of operating channels?

13. What is the Maximum number of operating channels?

14. Will you have a 16 to 32 Channel Combiner per antenna in TDMA?

15. What are the Physical and Electrical Tilt Angles of the antennas?

Delbert Parkinson, 9327 Classic Dr. NE, Lacey, WA 98516-3191, Delparkinson@msn.com "


XIII. Adequate Coverage.

Blair comments on the requirements defined in the wireless telecommunications by-laws of the town of Great Barrington, Massachusetts, with respect to adequate coverage::

"The telecommunications industry was upset that the town defined its own signal strength. Such a right has subsequently been reserved to the towns and upheld in federal case law in Sprint Spectrum v. Willoth. It is VERY important that YOU define the level of signal strength that is adequate. This is an engineering detail. DO NOT LET THE CARRIERS DEFINE EITHER ADEQUATE COVERAGE OR ADEQUATE CAPACITY! You have the right to set these parameters, as long as they are reasonable and do not have the effect of prohibiting the carriers from providing service." (In Levitt [2000] 196-197).

The following is how Great Barrington defined "adequate coverage":

"ADEQUATE COVERAGE - Coverage is considered to be 'adequate' within that area surrounding a Base Station where the predicted or measured median field strength of the transmitted signal is greater than -95 dBm. It is acceptable for there to be holes within the area of Adequate Coverage where the signal is less than -95 dBm, as long as the signal regains its strength to greater than -95 dBm further away from the Base Station. For the limited purpose of determining whether the use of a Repeater is necessary or desirable, there shall be deemed not to be Adequate Coverage within said holes. The other boundary of the area of Adequate Coverage, however, is that location past which the signal does not regain a strength of greater than -95 dBm." (In Levitt [2000] 196).

XIV. Necessary Explanation of a Need for a New Tower Included with Analyses of Existing Facilities and Other Possible Sites Which Are All ABSENT from the Providers' Applications.

Blair comments on the necessity on the part of the carrier to show need as follows:

"The purpose of this section is to require the carriers to show what they can already provide and to demonstrate conclusively that they needthe new facility they are applying for. It may be that they wantthe new facility (because it may produce income for them as they rent out space on the new tower to other competitors), but they may be able to provide completely adequate coverage from an existing tower (on which they would be paying rent). In this circumstance, the tower is not requiredto allow a new tower, but could insist that the carrier co-locate on the existing tower." (In Levitt [2000] 204).

Here is the section of the Great Barrington by-laws entitled "B. Adequate coverage, Adequate Capacity, and Justification of Need":

"1. Applicant shall provide written documentation of any Facility Sites in Great Barrington, in abutting towns and in Mount Washington, MA, in which it has a legal or equitable interest, whether by ownership, leasehold or otherwise. From each such Facility Site, it shall demonstrate with written documentation that these Facility Sites are not already providing, or do not have the potential by adjusting the Site, to provide Adequate Coverage and/or Adequate Capacity to the Town of Great Barrington. The documentation shall include for each Facility Site listed, the exact location (in longitude and latitude, to degrees, minutes and seconds), ground elevation, height of Tower or structure, type of Antennas, Antenna gain, height of Antennas on Tower or structure, output frequency, number of channels, power input and maximum power output per channel. Potential adjustments to these existing Facility Sites, including changes in Antenna type, orientation, gain, height or power output shall be specified. Radial Plots from each of these Facility Sites, as they exist, and with adjustments as above, shall be provided as part of the Application.

"2. Applicant shall demonstrate with written documentation that they have examined all Facility Sites located in Great Barrington, in abutting towns and in Mount Washington, MA, in which Applicant has no legal or equitable interest, whether by ownership, leasehold or otherwise to determine whether those existing Facility Sites can be used to provide Adequate Coverage and/or Adequate Capacity to the Town of Great Barrington. The documentation shall include, for each Facility Site examined, the exact location (in longitude and latitude, to degrees, minutes and seconds), ground elevation, height of Tower or structure, type of Antennas proposed, proposed Antenna gain, height of proposed Antennas on Tower or structure, proposed output frequency, proposed number of channels, proposed power input and proposed maximum power output per channel. Radial Plots from each of these Facility Sites, as proposed, shall be provided as part of the Application.

"3. Applicant shall demonstrate with written documentation that they have analyzed the feasibility of Repeaters in conjunction with all Facility Sites listed in compliance with VII,B,1&2 (above) to provide Adequate Coverage and/or Adequate Capacity to the Town of Great Barrington. Radial Plots of all Repeaters considered for use in conjunction with these Facility Sites shall be provided as part of the Application.

"4. Notwithstanding anyting else in this §171-126.B (entitled "Adequate Coverage, Adequate Capacity, and Justification of Need"), Applicant may request that the requirement to provide written documentation as to any existing Facility Site (as specified in §171-126.B.1 and §171-126.B.2) be waived or modified as to any such existing Facility Site outside the Town of Great Barrington which is located more than four miles from any boundary of the Town of Great Barrington. Such a request shall be submitted by the Applicant in writing and shall be supported by a statement of reasons and supporting material. The SPGA [SPECIAL PERMIT GRANTING AUTHORITY] may waive or modify said requirement only if it finds that consideration of the documentation regarding any such existing Facility Site as to which the Applicant seeks a waiver is not necessary because the intended technology is clearly not technically feasible for use at said site. The SPGA's finding as to the waiver request shall be based on all the evidence, which may include but is not limited to: then-current industry standards, government regulatory standards or materials, and input from the SPGA's Independent Consultant." (In Levitt [2000] 202-203).

XV. Funding Agreements for Continuous Monitoring and Independent Testing Requirements Which Are ABSENT from the Providers' Applications.

The busiest time when the most radiation is occurring is between 3 p.m. and 5 p.m. The following is what Levitt writes concerning the necessity for requiring the carrier to pay for continuing independent testing BEFOREand AFTER the facility is built and operating and to include the funding for this testing as part of the initial application:

"Require the regular measurement, monitoring, and reporting of exposures from all transmission facilities, including those of police and fire departments and paging services, by the transmission facilities themselves, but have the reports verified by an independent testing company. Because wave propagation can be complex, depending on such factors as frequency, power output, nearby structures, topography, conductive materials like metal water towers, and unexpected couplings with other frequencies from power lines or other radio towers, a handful of communities have enacted a specific test protocol that was developed by a bioengineer and health physicist, Carroll Adam Cobbs, of Seattle, Washington (see accompanying table).

"THE COBBS TEST PROTOCOL* [This table is printed in Levitt's book with the permission of Carroll Adam Cobbs, M.S. For additional information, contact him at 1011 Boren Ave., #184, Seattle, WA 98104; phone 206-248-2336.] [I had to change the format of this table because of the HTML format].

"TEST MODALITY: 1. Microwave power density measured at several locations. 2. RF field density using broad-band survey meter. 3. Broad-band spectrum analysis covering the range from 50 Hz to 2.9 GHz. 4. Carrier noise measurement. 5. Transmitter test and RF signal characterization . Also Analyzer to record modulation characteristics of the detected signals. 6. Frequency and time-interval analysis to graphically illustrate frequency and time and phase internal information. 7. 60 Hz electric and magnetic field strength. SUGGESTED EQUIPMENT [# 1 of suggested equipment to be used to measure # 1 of test modality, and so forth by numbered correspondence]: 1. HP 437B Power Meter with 8542A Thermistor sensor and calibrated horn antenna, to include SWR measurements at each setup. 2. Holaday Instruments RF Survey Meter with Isotropic Broad-band Probe. 3. HP 35665A (Low-Freq.) and HP 8591A or HP 8560 (VHF to microwave). 4. HP 11729C Carrier Noise test set. 5. HP 8901A Modulation. 6. HP 5372A Freq. And Time Interval Analyzer. 7. Holaday Instruments low-frequency measurement system with fiber optic isolation cable and accessories or Combinova low-frequency magnetic field meter with fiber optic probe isolation cable (60 Hz)." (Levitt [1995] 382-384)

Levitt continues:

"The Cobbs protocol is designed to test various aspects of the ambient background before a tower goes on-line and again afterward. It is intended to provide a crucial piece of information for future epidemiological studies that has been completely lacking in the past - the precise environmental alteration at a set moment in time from which health effects might be observed. Existing towers can be shut off and the environment tested; they the facilities can be turned back on and the environment retested. This will give a community precise knowledge about what the RF/MW radiation is, but measurements can be tricky and specific equipment is required..

"Suggested Methods and Data Collection:

"*All tests must be conducted BOTH BEFORE tower construction or operation AND AFTER the system is functional [Caps and bold mine].

"*All possible antenna configurations and power outputs must be examined.

"*Tests should be conducted during times of day with other EM sources at normal operation.

"*Note all 'hot spots' (areas or 'nodes' of high local intensity) and 'nulls' (areas where fields may be sharply diminished or cancelled). A wide-area 'map' should be prepared that encompasses the normal activities of the population which will be subjected to the exposures. This map should then become the template for all subsequent studies.

"*The exact coordinates of each test location should be recorded on copies of the map. The establishment of this map can be facilitated by using a commercially available, handheld Global Positioning Satellite System (GPSS)) receiver. This unit will provide the most accurate land coordinates irrespective of structures and boundaries which may change with time.

"*The orientation of each antenna or probe should (as much as possible) be the same, and readings of minimums and maximums should be noted. Wherever possible, isotropic antennas and probes should be used.

"*All parameters under test should be referenced to the same coordinates at each test location.

"*Measurements should be taken at locations and at heights above ground (or other surfaces) where individuals may reasonably be found.

"*Measurements should not be made within 20 centimeters of any object.

"*All raw data should be stored by test site, date, and modality on digital media as well as by written notebook entry. This will permit much of the equipment specified (spectrum analyzer, etc.) To remain at an analysis center where the probe data may be reviewed. It will also permit retrospective analysis of the data by others. Most of the equipment specified in the protocol has this storage capability.

"*All equipment should be calibrated regularly by an independent facility with traceable calibration sources.

"*All test team members should show proof of training on each piece of equipment as well as have familiarity with electric and magnetic field measurement procedures.

"*If epidemiological studies are considered at some point in the future, this data may be readily used in correlation studies with demographics, medical histories, etc.

"The precise measurement of RF/MW radiation is just now becoming technically feasible. Better equipment has been developed in the past few years, in addition to a better understanding of the subtleties of its use. Measuring nonionizing radiation in the field has become a fine science and is best done by professionals. Equipment is typically expensive as well as finely calibrated; it requires special expertise and training to use and interpret. (A simple gaussmeter won't suffice.) Because of the absence of federal funding, it would not be unreasonable to ask the transmission companies to pay for equipment and testing. Mr. Cobbs has specified certain equipment because of its known technical quality and to achieve particular test parameters.

"It has become obvious to many communities that, with such a large regulatory gap at the federal level, local protection is crucial. But few communities have had the expertise to write regulations that are truly effective. A community wanting to do something quickly might consider writing into its zoning or health regulations the NCRP guidelines, along with the Cobbs Test Protocol, which can also be made retroactive to existing towers. Broadcasters in your area will then know exactly what is required of them. Many communications companies that initially have grumbled about such restrictions have come to respect the communities that hold public safety in high regard, and they have also come to welcome the opportunity to learn more about the effects (or lack thereof) that their technology has on an environment.

"If you are a private citizen living near a communications system of some kind and would like to take measurements, the best thing to do is phone a professional EMF-testing consultant. Unfortunately, the equipment to accurately measure the radio/microwave frequencies is expensive, and no consumer models (like the simple gaussmeters for measuring 60-hertz fields) are yet available. As consumer curiosity about RF/MW rises, such equipment will undoubtedly become available.

"Some people have experimented with inexpensive wave guides, but their calibrations can be confusing for the nonprofessional. A simple radar detector will clue you into that frequency in your immediate environment, but professional testing is best. If you are experiencing RF interference with your radio or TV reception, the FCC will sometimes make a field visit to take measurements. It's always worth a call." (Levitt [1995] 382-386).

XVI. People to Contact.

Troy Bliss, Longmont Planning Department, 303-774-4708; 303-651-8330; Fax# 303-651-8696; Email: troy.bliss@ci.longmont.co.us ; and longmont.planning@ci.longmont.co.us

Colorado State Representatives , Mark Udall - US Representative, District 2, 303-650-7820; Marilyn Musgrave - US Representative, District 4, 720-494-4336

Boulder County Commissioners, Paul Danish, Thomas Mayer, and Ron Stewart, POB 471, Boulder, CO 80306, Constituent Liaison - 303-441-1688; Email: rstewart@co.boulder.co.us ; tmayer@co.boulder.co.us ; pauldanish@aol.com

Representative Paul Weissmann, 303-866-2920, Colorado State House of Representatives, 200 East Colfax, Denver, CO 80203

Senator, Terry Phillips, 303-866-5291, Colorado State Senate, 200 East Colfax Avenue, Denver, CO 80203

Kathy Hall, St Vrain Valley Board of Education, Longmont representative, 502 Collyer St., Longmont, CO 80501, 303-776-9613.

St Vrain Valley School District,395 South Pratt Parkway, Longmont, 80501, 303-776-6200

XVII. The following (12 pages) is quoted from the website "A Cellular Phone Tower on Ossining High School?" (Link 9)

[This website was written by Dr. L. Plachta.]

A National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences panel...[1998] designated power frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) as "possible human carcinogens." (2).... Internationally acknowledged experts in the field of RF research have shown that RF of the type used in digital cellular antennas and phones can have critical effects on cell cultures, animals, and people in laboratories and have also found epidemiological evidence (studies of communities, not in the laboratory) of serious health effects at "non-thermal levels," where the intensity of the radiation was too low to cause heating. They have found:

Increased cell growth of brain cancer cells(4)

A doubling of the rate of lymphoma in mice(5)

Changes in tumor growth in rats(6)

An increased number of tumors in rats(7)

Increased breaks in double and single stranded DNA, our genetic material(8)

2 to 4 times as many cancers in Polish soldiers exposed to RF(9)

More childhood leukemia in children exposed to RF(10)

Changes in sleep patterns and REM type sleep(11)

Headaches caused by RF exposure(12)

Neurologic changes(13) including

Changes in the blood-brain-barrier(14)

Changes in cellular morphology (including cell death)(15)

Changes in neural electrophysiology (EEG)(16)

Changes in neurotransmitters (which affect motivation and pain perception)(17)

Metabolic changes (of calcium ions, for instance)(18)

Cytogenetic effects (which can affect cancer, Alzheimer's, neurodegenerative diseases)(19)

Decreased memory, attention, and slower reaction time in school children(20)

Retarded learning in rats indicating a deficit in spatial "working memory"(21)

Increased blood pressure in healthy men(22)

Damage to eye cells when combined with commonly used glaucoma medications(23)

Many national and international organizations have recognized the need to define the true risk of low intensity, non-thermal RF exposure, calling for intensive scientific investigation to answer the open questions. These include:

The World Health Organization, noting reports of "cancer, reduced fertility, memory loss, and adverse changes in the behavior and development of children."(24)

The U. S.Food and Drug Administration (FDA)(25)

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)(26)

The Swedish Work Environmental Fund(27)

The National Cancer Institute (NCI)(28)

The European Commission (EC)(29)

New Zealand's Ministry of Health(30)

National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia(31)

Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organization of Australia(CSIRO)(32)

Non-thermal effects are recognized by experts on RF and health to be potential health hazards. Safe levels of RF exposure for these low intensity, non-thermal effects have not yet been established.

The FDA has explicitly rejected claims that cellular phones are "safe."(33)

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has rejected the current (ANSI/IEEE) safety standards because they are based on thermal effects alone.(34)

Many scientists and physicians question the safety of exposure to RF. The CSIRO study, for example, notes that there are no clear cutoff levels at which low intensity exposure has no effect, and that the results of ongoing studies will take years to analyze.(35)

The county of Palm Beach, FL, the state of California, and the country of New Zealandhave all prohibited cellular antennas near schools due to safety concerns.

What should we do while waiting for the much needed answers about the non-thermal effects of RF? This is the question we, as parents, students, and Ossiningresidents must answer.

The Board of Education has the responsibility of protecting and promoting the best interests of the students of our schools and of our community in general. The commercial interests of outside profit-making corporations can play no role in their decisions.

We simply don't know at this time what the possible health consequences of long term, low level exposure to RF of the type used by the PCS Base Station antenna will be. No one knows--the data just isn't there. The chairman of the ICNIRP, one of the main groups which formulated the current exposure guidelines, has stated that the guidelines include "no consideration regarding prudent avoidance" for health effects for which evidence is less than conclusive.(36)

Should we allow ourselves to take this risk?

Should we allow our children to take this risk?

School buildings, youth centers, and other places where children are found are not the proper place for a technology which could endanger health and well being. [Bold of this sentence added by me.]

As noted at the start of this brief review, our School Board was told none of this when they were asked to decide on the siting of the cellular phone antenna. The "Safety Analysis" they received was not an honest attempt to explain the health effects of RF exposure, but rather a sophisticated "sale's pitch" designed to blind the Board to the real questions and uncertainties. While such behavior in an attempt to "make a sale" can never be condoned, in the case of the suppression of information about possible adverse health consequences for the children of our schools, it is unconscionable. Our children and their parents stand defenseless before such a strategy.

The only reasonable and responsible course is to "play it safe" with our children. The Ossining High Schoolis not the proper place for a cellular telephone antenna.

[Footnotes for Ossining Website follow (10 pages). The Bibliography for my website is found in a separate section after these footnotes]

[back] 1. "Safety Analysis of the Electromagnetic Environment in the Vicinity of a Proposed Personal Communications Services Base Station, Site 06-460I: Ossining High School, Ossining, New York" prepared by the Wireless & Optical Technologies Safety Department of Bell Laboratories for Sprint Spectrum L.P.

[back] 2. An international blue ribbon panel assembled by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) designated power frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) as "possible human carcinogens" on June 24, 1998. The panel's decision was based largely on the results of epidemiological studies of children exposed at home and workers exposed on the job. The evaluation of the EMF literature followed procedures developed by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), based in Lyon, France. The working group's report will be the basis for the NIEHS report to Congress on the EMF Research and Public Information Dissemination program (EMF RAPID). The National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) of the United Kingdom noted that the views of its Advisory Group on Non-Ionizing Radiation are "consistent with those of the NIEHS expert panel."

June 26, 1998 statement of the National Radiological Protection Board, sited in Microwave News, July/August 1998

[back] 3. The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) statement "Health Issues Related to the Use of Hand-Held Radiotelephones and Base Transmitters" of 1996 reads:

"Thermally mediated effects of RF fields have been studied in animals, including primates. These data suggest effects that will probably occur in humans subjected to whole body or localized heating sufficient to increase tissue temperatures by greater than 1C. They include the induction of opacities of the lens of the eye, possible effects on development and male fertility, various physiological and thermoregulatory responses to heat, and a decreased ability to perform mental tasks as body temperature increases. Similar effects have been reported in people subject to heat stress, for example while working in hot environments or by fever. The various effects are well established and form the biological basis for restricting occupational and public exposure to radiofrequency fields. In contrast, non-thermal effects are not well established and currently do not form a scientifically acceptable basis for restricting human exposure for frequencies used by hand-held radiotelephones and base stations."

International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, "Health Issues Related to the Use of Hand-Held Radiotelephones and Base Transmitters," Health Physics 70:587-593, 1996

The ANSI/IEEE Standard for Safety Levels of 1992 similarly states:

"An extensive review of the literature revealed once again that the most sensitive measurements of potentially harmful biological effects were based on the disruption of ongoing behavior associated with an increase of body temperature in the presence of electromagnetic fields. Because of the paucity of reliable data on chronic exposures, IEEE Subcommittee IV focused on evidence of behavioral disruption under acute exposures, even disruption of a transient and fully reversible nature."

IEEE Standards Coordinating committee 28 on Non-Ionizing Radiation Hazards: Standard for Safe Levels With Respect to Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3 KHz to 300 GHz (ANSI/IEEE C95.1-1991), The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992

[back] 4. Drs. Czerska, Casamento, Ning, and Davis (working for the Food and Drug Administration in 1997) using "a waveform identical to that used in digital cellular phones" at a power level within our current standards (SAR of 1.6 W/Kg, the maximum spatial peak exposure level recommended for the general population in the ANSI C95.1-1991 standard) found increases in cellular proliferation in human glioblastoma cells. This shows that "acceptable" levels of radiation can cause human cancer cells to multiply faster. The authors note that "because of reported associations between cellular phone exposure and the occurrence of a brain tumor, glioblastoma, a human glioblastoma cell line was used" in their research.

E.M. Czerska, J. Casamento, J. T. Ning, and C. Davis, "Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation on Cell Proliferation," [Abstract presented on February 7, 1997 at the workshop 'Physical Characteristics and Possible Biological Effects of Microwaves Applied in Wireless Communication, Rockville, MD] E. M. Czerska, J. Casamento Centers for Devices and Radiological Health, Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, Maryland 20857, USA; H. T. Ning, Indian Health Service, Rockville, Maryland 20857, USA; C. Davis, Electrical Engineering Dept., Univ. of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA

[back] 5. Dr. Michael Repacholi (in 1997, currently the director of the International Electromagnetic Fields Project at the World Health Organization) took one hundred transgenic mice and exposed some to radiation for two 30 minute periods a day for up to 18 months. He found that the exposed mice developed lymphomas (a type of cancer) at twice the rate of the unexposed mice. While telecommunications industry spokespersons criticized the experiment for using mice with a mutation which predisposed them to cancer (transgenic) the researchers pointed out that "some individuals inherit mutations in other genes...that predispose them to develop cancer, and these individuals may comprise a subpopulation at special risk from agents that would pose an otherwise insignificant risk of cancer."

Dr. Repacholi stated "I believe this is the first animal study showing a true nonthermal effect." He repeated the experiment in 1998 using 50 Hz fields instead of the 900 MHz pulsed radiation (the type used by cellular phones) used in the original experiment and found no cancer risk. He stated that this new data had implications for his original cellular phone study: "the control groups for both our RF and 50 Hz field studies showed no statistical differences, which lessens the possibility that the RF study result was a chance event or due to errors in methodology."

It is extremely important to note that Dr. Michael Repacholi was Chairman of the ICNIRP at the time its Statement on Health Issues Related to the Use of Hand-Held Radiotelephones and Base Transmitters was developed in 1996.

M. Repacholi et al., "Lymphomas in E-Pim1 Transgenic Mice Exposed to Pulsed 900 MHz Electromagnetic Fields," Radiation Research, 147, pp.631-640, May 1997

[back] 6. Dr. Ross Adey (Veterans Administration Hospital in 1996) found what appeared to be a protective effect in rats exposed to the type of radiation used in digital cellular phones. The rats were exposed to an SAR of 0.58-0.75 W/Kg 836 MHz pulsed radiation of the TDMA type two hours a day, four days a week for 23 months, with the signals turned on and off every 7.5 minutes, so total exposure was 4 hours a week. Interestingly this effect was not present when a non-digital, analog signal was used. Rats exposed developed cancer less often. This study shows that low power fields of the digital cellular frequency can influence cancer development. Whether they would protect or promote in our children is a question for further study.

Ross Adey of the Veterans Administration Hospital of Loma Linda, CA presented the results of pulsed (digital cellular) radiation on June 13, 1996 at the 18thAnnual Meeting of the Bioelectromagnetics Society in Victoria, Canada. He presented the findings of the analog cellular phone radiation effect at the June 1997 2ndWorld Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine in Bologna, Italy. Reviews can be found in Microwave News issues July/August, 1996 and March/April 1997.

[back] 7. Dr. A. W. Guy reported an extensive investigation on rats chronically exposed from 2 up to 27 months of age to low-level pulsed microwaves at SARs up to 0.4 W/Kg. The exposed group was found to have a significantly higher incidence of primary cancers.

A. W. Guy, C. K. Chou, L. Kunz, L, Crowley, and J. Krupp, "Effects of Long-Term Low-Level Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure on Rats." Volume 9. Summary. Brooks Air Force Base, Texas, USAF School of Aerospace Medicine, USF-SAM-TR-85-11; 1985

[back] 8. Drs. Henry Lai and N. P. Singh of the University of Washingtonin Seattle have reported breaks in both single stranded and double stranded DNA in the brains of rats exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation at an SAR of 1.2 W/Kg. DNA is the carrier of the genetic information in all living cells. Cumulated DNA strand breaks in brain cells can lead to cancer or neurodegenerative diseases.

H. Lai and N. P. Singh, "Single- and Double-Strand DNA Breaks in Rat Brain Cells After Acute Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation," International Journal of Radiation Biology, Vol 69, No. 4, 513-521, 1996

[back] 9. Dr. Stanislaw Szmigielski has studied many thousands of Polish soldiers. He has found that those exposed to radiofrequency and microwave radiation had more than double the cancer rate of the unexposed servicemen analyzing data from 1971-1985. He has presented further data suggesting a dose-response relationship with soldiers exposed to 100-200 W/cm2 suffering 1.69 times as many cancers as the unexposed, and those exposed to 600-1000 W/cm2suffering 4.63 times as many cancers. 1000 W/cm2 is the level considered safe for the public according to FCC regulations. Occupational exposure up to 5000 W/cm2 is allowed.

S. Szmigielski, "Cancer Morbidity in Subjects Occupationally Exposed to High Frequency (Radiofrequency and Microwave) Electromagnetic Radiation," The Science of the Total Environment 180:9-17, 1996

[back] 10. Dr. Bruce Hocking found an association between increased childhood leukemia incidence and mortality in the proximity of television towers. The power density ranged from 0.2-8.0 W/cm2 nearer and 0.02 W/cm2 farther from the towers.

B. Hocking, I. R. Gordon, H. L. Grain, and G. E. Hatfield, "Cancer Incidence and Mortality and Proximity to TV Towers," Medical Journal of Australia165: 601-605; 1996

[back] 11. Drs. Mann and Rööschke investigated the influence of pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields of digital mobile radio telephones on sleep in healthy humans. They found a hypnotic effect with shortening of sleep onset latency and a REM (Rapid Eye Movement) suppressive effect with reduction of duration and percentage of REM sleep. "REM sleep plays a special physiological role for information processing in the brain, especially concerning consolidation of new experiences. Thus the effects observed possibly could be associated with alterations of memory and learning functions."

K. Mann and J. Rööschke, "Effects of Pulsed High-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on Human Sleep," Neuropsychobiology 33:41-47, 1996

[back] 12. Dr. Allen Frey has been researching microwave radiation for over 3 decades. Here is the abstract on a paper concerning headaches and cellular phone radiation. "There have been numerous recent reports of headaches occurring in association with the use of hand-held cellular telephones. Are these reported headaches real? Are they due to emissions from telephones? There is reason to believe that the answer is "yes" to both questions. There are several lines of evidence to support this conclusion. First, headaches as a consequence of exposure to low intensity microwaves were reported in the literature 30 years ago. These were observed during the course of microwave hearing research before there were cellular telephones. Second, the blood-brain barrier appears to be involved in headaches, and low intensity microwave energy exposure affects the barrier. Third, the dopamine-opiate systems of the brain appear to be involved in headaches, and low intensity electromagnetic energy exposure affects those systems. In all three lines of research, the microwave energy used was approximately the same--in frequencies, modulations, and incident energies--as those emitted by present day cellular telephones, Could the current reports of headaches be the canary in the coal mine, warning of biologically significant effects?"

A. H. Frey, "Headaches from Cellular Telephones: Are they Real and What Are the Implications?" Environmental Health Perspectives Vol 106, Num. 3, pp.101-103, March 1998

[back] 13. Henry Lai's review of the literature concerning neurological effects of RF: Existing data indicate that RF of relatively low intensity can affect the nervous system. Changes in blood-brain barrier, morphology, electrophysiology, neurotransmitter functions, cellular metabolism, and calcium efflux, and genetic effects have been reported in the brain of animals after exposure to RF. These changes can lead to functional changes in the nervous system. Behavioral changes in animals after exposure to RR have been reported.

Even a temporary change in neural functions after RF exposure could lead to adverse consequences. For example, a transient loss of memory function or concentration could result in an accident when a person is driving. Loss of short term working memory has indeed been observed in rats after acute exposure to RF.

Research has also shown that the effects of RF on the nervous system can cumulate with repeated exposure. The important question is, after repeated exposure, will the nervous system adapt to the perturbation and when will homeostasis break down? Related to this is that various lines of evidence suggest that responses of the central nervous system to RF could be a stress response. Stress effects are well known to cumulate over time and involve first adaptation and then an eventual break down of homeostatic processes.

H. Lai, "Neurological Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation Relating to Wireless Communication Technology," Paper presentation at the IBC-UK Conference: "Mobile Phones-Is There a Health Risk?" September 16-17, 1997, Brussels, Belgium

[back] 14. Blood-Brain-Barrier: The blood-brain-barrier (BBB) is primarily a continuous layer of cells lining the blood vessels of the brain. It is critical for regulation of the brain's activity. Lai notes that "Even though most studies indicate that changes in the BBB occurs only after exposure to RF of high intensities with significant increase in tissue temperature, several studies have reported increases in permeability after exposure to RF of relatively low intensities....Pulsed RF seems to be more potent than continuous wave RF." Pulsed RF is the type used in digital cellular systems. Effects on the BBB were noted at the 0.2 W/cm2 level, and even at SAR of 0.016-5 W/Kg. These effects could lead to local changes in brain function.

H. Lai, Ibid

[back] 15. Cellular Morphology: RF induced morphological changes of the central nervous system are shown only to occur under relatively high intensity or prolonged exposure to the radiation. However, there are several studies which show that repeated exposure at relatively low power intensities caused morphological changes in the central nervous system. Again here pulsed (as in digital phone use) RF produced more pronounced effects. Certain drugs given to nonhuman primates sensitized them, for instance allowing eye damage to occur at very low power intensities. Dr Lai notes "Changes in morphology, especially cell death, could have an important implication on health. Injury-induced cell proliferation has been hypothesized as a cause of cancer." Some of these experiments were in the range of SAR 0.53 W/Kg or even 0.26 W/Kg.

H. Lai, Ibid

[back] 16. Neural Electrophysiology: Changes in neuronal electrophysiology, evoked potentials, and EEG have been reported. Some effects were observed at low intensities and after repeated exposure, suggesting cumulative effect. Energy density levels were as low as 50 W/cm2.

H. Lai, Ibid

[back] 17. Neurotransmitters: Neurotransmitters are molecules which transmit information from one nerve cell to another. Early studies have reported changes in various neurotransmitters (catecholamines, serotonin, and acetylcholine) in the brain of animals only after exposure to high intensities of RF. However, there are more recent studies that show changes in neurotransmitter functions after exposure to low intensities of RF. For example, effects were seen at 50 W/cm2 in one experiment.

RF activates endogenous opioids in the brain. Endogenous opioids are neurotransmitters with morphine-like properties and are involved in many important physiological and behavioral functions, such as pain perception and motivation.

The response to RF depends on the area of the brain studied and on the duration of exposure. Exposure to RF has been shown to affect the behavioral actions of benzodiazepines (these are drugs such as Valium).

H. Lai, Ibid

[back] 18. Metabolic Changes in Neural Tissue: Several studies investigated the effects of RF exposure on energy metabolism in the rat brain. Surprisingly, changes were reported after exposure to relatively low intensity RF for a short duration of time (minutes). The effects depended on the frequency and modulation characteristics of the RF and did not seem to be related to temperature changes in the tissue.

Calcium ions play important roles in the functions of the nervous system, such as the release of neurotransmitters and the actions of some neurotransmitter receptors. Thus changes in calcium ion concentration could lead to alterations in neural functions. This is an area of considerable controversy because some researchers have also reported no significant effects of RF exposure on calcium efflux. However, when positive effects were observed, they occurred after exposure to RF of relatively low intensities and were dependent on the modulation and intensity of the RF studied (window effects). Some studies had SARs as low as 0.05-0.005 W/Kg.

H. Lai, Ibid

[back] 19. Cytogenetic effects: Cytogenetic effects have been reported in various types of cells after exposure to RF. Recently, several studies have reported cytogenetic changes in brain cells by RF, and these results could have important implication for the health effects of RF. Genetic damage to glial cells can result in carcinogenesis. However, since neurons do not undergo mitosis, a more likely consequence of neuronal genetic damage is changes in functions and cell death, which could either lead to or accelerate the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Power densities of 1 mW/cm2 were employed, a level considered safe for the public by the FCC.

RF-induced increases in single and double strand DNA breaks in rats can be blocked by treating the rats with melatonin or the spin-trap compound N-t-butyl--phenylnitrone. Since both compounds are potent free radical scavengers, these data suggest that free radicals may play a role in the genetic effect of RF. If free radicals are involved in the RF-induced DNA strand breaks in brain cells, results from this study could have an important implication on the health effects of RF exposure. Involvement of free radicals in human diseases, such as cancer and atherosclerosis, have been suggested. Free radicals also play an important role in the aging process, which has been ascribed to be a consequence of accumulated oxidative damage to body tissues, and involvement of free radicals in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's, Huntington, and Parkinson, has also been suggested. One can also speculate that some individuals may be more susceptible to the effects of RF exposure.

H. Lai, Ibid

[back] 20. Dr. A. A. Kolodynski and V. V. Kolodynska of the Institute of Biology, Latvian Academy of Sciences, presented the results of experiments on school children living in the area of the Skrunda Radio Location Station in Latvia. Motor function, memory, and attention significantly differed between the exposed and control groups. The children living in front of the station had less developed memory and attention and their reaction time was slower.

A. A. Kolodynski, V. V. Kolodynska, "Motor and Psychological Functions of School Children Living in the Area of the Skrunda Radio Location Station in Latvia," The Science of the Total Environment 180:87-93, 1996

[back] 21. Dr. H. Lai and colleagues in 1993 exposed rats to 45 minutes of pulsed high frequency microwaves at low intensity and found that the rats showed retarded learning, indicating a deficit in spatial "working memory" function.

H Lai, A. Horita, and A. W. Guy, "Microwave Irradiation Affects Radial-Arm Maze Performance in the Rat," Bioelectromagnetics 15:95-104, 1994

[back] 22. Dr. Stefan Braune reported a 5-10 mm Hg resting blood pressure rise during exposure to a radiofrequency electromagnetic field of the sort used by cellular phones in Europe. The Lancet, the British medical journal where the report appeared, stated that "Such an increase could have adverse effects on people with high blood pressure."

S. Braune, "Resting Blood Pressure Increase During Exposure to a Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Field," The Lancet 351, pp. 1,857-1,858, 1998

[back] 23. Dr. Kues and colleagues (of Johns Hopkins University and the Food and Drug Administration) found that placing timolol and pilocarpine into the eyes of monkeys and then exposing them to low power density pulsed microwaves caused a significant reduction in the power-density threshold for causing damage to the cells covering the eye and the iris. In fact the power was reduced by a factor of 10, so that it entered the "acceptable, safe" level of the FCC, 1 mW/cm2! Timolol and pilocarpine are commonly used by people suffering from glaucoma. This is a very important study, as it points to the fact that laboratory experiments under "ideal" conditions are rarely what one finds in real life. The "safe" level of radiation exposure for healthy people is likely to be very different than for those of us who suffer from illness, take medications, or are perhaps simply younger or older than those in the experiments.

H. A. Kues, J. C. Monahan, S. A. D'Anna, D. S. McLeod, G. A. Lutty, and S. Koslov, "Increased Sensitivity of the Non-Human Primate Eye to Microwave Radiation Following Ophthalmic Drug Pretreatment," Bioelectromagnetics 13:379-393, 1992

[back] 24. The World Health Organization states that "concerns have been raised about the safety of cellular mobile telephones, electric power lines and police speed-control 'radar guns.' Scientific reports have suggested that exposure to electromagnetic fields emitted from these devices could have adverse health effects, such as cancer, reduced fertility, memory loss, and adverse changes in the behaviour and development of children." Therefore, "In May 1996, in response to growing public health concerns in many Member States over possible health effects from exposure to an ever-increasing number and diversity of EMF sources, the World Health Organization launched an international project to assess health and environmental effects of exposure to electric and magnetic fields, which became known as the International EMF Project. The International EMF Project will last for five years." "A number of studies at [frequencies above about 1 MHz] suggest that exposure to RF fields too weak to cause heating may have adverse health consequences, including cancer and memory loss. Identifying and encouraging coordinated research into these open questions is one of the major objectives of the International EMF Project."

World Health Organization Fact Sheet N181, "Electromagnetic Fields and Public Health, The International EMF Project," reviewed May 1998 and World Health Organization Fact Sheet N182, "Electromagnetic Fields and Public Health, Physical Properties and Effects on Biological Systems," reviewed May 1998, underlining added

[back] 25. The U. S. Food and Drug Administration in a January 14, 1998 letter to the House Telecommunications Subcommittee stated it "believes additional research in the area of RF is needed." In 1997 the agency established the following priorities:

Chronic (lifetime) animal exposures should be given the highest priority.

Chronic animal exposures should be performed both with and without the application of chemical initiating agents to investigate tumor promotion in addition to tumorigenesis.

Identification of potential risks should include end points other than brain cancer (e.g. ocular effects of RF radiation exposure).

Replication of prior studies demonstrating positive biological effects work is needed. A careful replication of the Chou and Guy study (Bioelectromagnetics, 13, pp.469-496, 1992) which suggests that chronic exposure of rats to microwaves is associated with an increase in tumors, would contribute a great deal to the risk identification process for wireless communication products.

Genetic toxicology studies should focus on single cell gel studies of DNA strand breakage and on induction of micronuclei.....

Epidemiology studies focused on approaches optimized for hazard identification are warranted....

Food and Drug Administration Recommendations quoted in Microwave News, March/April, 1997

[back] 26. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) is planning a multicountry, multimillion dollar study of cancer among users of wireless phones, beginning 1998.

Microwave News, January/February, 1998

[back] 27. The Swedish Work Environmental Fund initiated a new epidemiological study on cellular phone radiation and brain tumors in 1997.

Microwave News, November/December, 1997

[back] 28. The National Cancer Institute announced plans for a 5 year study of brain tumors and cellular phone radiation in 1993.

Microwave News, January/February, 1993

[back] 29. The European Commission (EC) Expert Group on health effects of wireless phones called for a 5 year research program with a $20 million budget, reported 1997 .

Microwave News , January/February, 1997

[back] 30. A report commissioned by New Zealand's Ministry of Health stated that "It is imperative that the scientific issues be clarified as soon as possible, as there is much at stake." It called for more research to examine the potential health effects of RF radiation.

Microwave News, November/December, 1996

[back] 31. The National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia announced its sponsorship of a 5 year, $3.5 million project on potential health effects of mobile phone technology in 1996.

Microwave News, November/December, 1996

[back] 32. Finally, the Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) of Australia concluded in 1995 that the safety of cellular telephones cannot be resolved "in the near future." Dr. Stan Barnett, a principal researcher of CSIRO, states that "My goal is to establish a national committee to approach this problem by coordinating relevant and focused research." He estimated a budget of $3 million over a 3 year period would be necessary.

Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organization, "Status of Research on Biological Effects and Safety of Electromagnetic Radiation: Telecommunications Frequencies," a report prepared by Dr. Stan Barnett, as sited in Microwave News, September/October, 1995

[back] 33. On July 19, 1993 Dr. Elizabeth Jacobson, Deputy Director for Science, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Food and Drug Administration criticized Thomas Wheeler, President of the Cellular Telecommunications Industry Association:

"I am writing to let you know that we were concerned about two important aspects of your press conference of July 16 concerning the safety of cellular phones, and to ask that you carefully consider the following comments when you make future statements to the press. First, both the written press statements and your verbal comments during the conference seemed to display an unwarranted confidence that these products will be found absolutely safe. In fact, the unremittingly upbeat tone of the press packet strongly implies that there can be no hazard, leading the reader to wonder why any further research would be needed at all.....More specifically, your press packet selectively quotes from our Talk Paper of February 4 in order to imply that FDA believes that cellular phones are "safe." ("There is no proof at this point that cellular phones are harmful.") In fact, the same Talk Paper also states, "There is not enough evidence to know for sure, either way." Our position, as we have stated it before, is this: Although there is no direct evidence linking cellular phones with harmful effects in humans, a few animal studies suggest that such effects could exist. It is simply too soon to assume that cellular phones are perfectly safe, or that they are hazardous--either assumption would be premature. This is precisely why more research is needed."

Full text of letter can be found in Microwave News, July/August, 1993

[back] 34. In 1993 the Director of the Office of Radiation and Indoor Air of the Environmental Protection Agency suggested that the FCC not adopt the 1992 ANSI/IEEE standard "due to serious flaws," among them (1) "the ANSI/IEEE conclusion that there is no scientific data indicating that certain subgroups of the population are more at risk than others is not supported by NCRP and EPA reports" and (2) "the thesis that ANSI/IEEE recommendations are protective of all mechanisms of interaction is unwarranted because the adverse effects level in the 1992 ANSI/IEEE standard are based on a thermal effect."

Letter from Margo T. Oge, Director, Office of Radiation and Indoor Air to Thomas Stanley, Chief Engineer, Office of engineering and Technology, FCC, dated Nov 9, 1993

[back] 35. A brief sampling of the report, "Status of Research on Biological Effects and Safety of Electromagnetic Radiation: Telecommunications Frequencies" follows:

Problems in studies of human populations published to date include imprecise estimates of exposure. As a result, such epidemiological studies may underestimate any real risk. The likelihood of epidemiological studies providing useful information is questionable, particularly if the biological end point cannot be predicted. Its value in the short term (less than 10 years) must be negligible unless there was an enormous increase in the rate of cancer growth. Interestingly, the incidence of brain tumors in the EC countries has increased substantially in recent years....

[RF] safety cannot be assessed in the absence of reported serious effects when so little research has been aimed at the problem. It is somewhat surprising, and rather disappointing, to find that although the literature contains many hundreds of publications, there are very few areas of consensus....At low levels the absence of clear thresholds and [the] presence of intensity and frequency windows have created questions rather than provided answers....

There is no doubt that the interpretation of bioeffects data has been clouded by a preoccupation with thermally mediated processes. In fact, development of the ANSI/IEEE standard is based only on well-established thermal effects, and ignores the more subtle nonthermal processes that are more difficult to interpret and apply to human health....

Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organization, "Status of Research on Biological Effects and Safety of Electromagnetic Radiation: Telecommunications Frequencies," a report prepared by Dr. Stan Barnett, as sited in Microwave News, September/October, 1995

[back] 36. The ICNIRP exposure guidelines are only designed to protect against "known adverse health impacts," according to Dr. Jüürgen Bernhardt, ICNIRP's chairman. Bernhardt reviewed the updated limits, which cover the spectrum from 1 Hz to 300 GHz, in a presentation at the 20th Annual Meeting of the Biolectromagnetics Society in St. Pete Beach, FL, on June 10. The limits protect against "short-term, immediate health effects" such as nerve stimulation, contact shocks and thermal insults, according to the guidelines, which appear in the April issue of Health Physics (74, pp.494-522, 1998). Despite "suggestive" evidence that power frequency magnetic fields can be carcinogenic, ICNIRP has concluded that this and other nonthermal health effects have not been "established." ICNIRP has long followed this approach to standard-setting. In his talk, Bernhardt noted that the guidelines include "no consideration regarding prudent avoidance" for health effects for which evidence is less than conclusive.

Microwave News, July/August, 1998, underlining added

XVIII. Microwave Weapons Used for Changes in Behavior, Loss of Memory and Focus, and Death by Suicide or Cancer: Quotation from book by Tim Rifat, "Remote Viewing: The History and Science of Psychic Warfare and Spying" (1999) 74-89.

Mind control and the UK

"As an offshoot of research into ways of enhancing psychic spying by electronic means, methods for remote influencing by purely electronic means - that is, with the psychic element - have also been devised.

"Britain was the first discoverer of microwave technology, used for radar in the forties, and therefore it had a commanding lead over everyone else in the West in this field. Research into the use of microwave technology being specifically applied to mind control began in the fifties at a British research establishment, which looked for ways of controlling the British population by this means.

"Project Pandora, launched in the sixties by the CIA, was a research programme looking into the effect of electromagnetic radiation on brain function.* [* Ross W. Adey: 'Neurophysiologic Effects of Radiofrequency and Microwave Radiation', Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 55, No 11, Dec 1979; 'The Influences of Impressed Electrical Fields at EEG Frequencies on Brain and Behaviour,' in Behaviour and Brain Electrical Activity, Burch, N. and Altshuler, H.E., ed., Plenum press, 1975; 'Effects of Modulated Very High Frequency Fields on Specific Brain Rhythms in Cats', Brain Research 58, 1973; 'Spectral Analysis of Low Frequency Components in the Electrical Activity of the Hippocampus During Learning, Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology', Brain Research 23, 1967; 'Military Use of Mind Control Weapons', by Judy Wall, Nexus 5, No 6, Nov 1998; The Encyclopedia of Mind Control, Adventures Unlimited Press, 1997; also Secret and Suppressed by Jim Keith, {Portland Oregon:} Feral Press, 1993.] One of the leading lights in the Pandora project was a Dr Ross Adey. His work at the Brain Research Institute of the University of California has shown that there is a biological reaction in the brain to electromagnetic (EM) radiation. This reaction was found to be dependent on the frequency, amplitude and dose of the ultra-high-frequency (UHF) or microwave radiation used. The important factor in using microwaves for mind control was found to be extremely low frequency (ELF) signals. These ELF frequencies were picked up by the brain and, depending on their frequency, would modify behaviour and influence health. This meant that carefully modulated microwave beams could be used remotely to control brain function. Project Pandora was a programme established under the auspices of the "Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) to investigate EM mind control utilising radio frequency, and direct 'neural manipulation by remote radar'. The Director of DARPA is on record as stating, 'The programme's initial goal was to discover whether a carefully controlled microwave signal could control the mind ... for potential weapons applications.... After testing a low-level modulated microwave signal on a chimpanzee, and within approximately a week causing stark performance decrements and behavioural disorganization, the potential of exerting a degree of control on human behavior by low-level microwaves seems to exist.'

"The seventies brought an even darker side to the story, with the revelation to the American public that the Russians had been microwaving the US embassy in Moscow since 1965. One third of the staff developed abnormal white blood cell counts and suffered chromosomal damage. An unusually large number of illnesses were reported by the staff. US Ambassador Walter Stoessel developed a rare blood disease similar to leukaemia, suffering headaches and bleeding from the eyes. He was reported as telling his staff that microwaves could cause leukaemia, skin cancer, cataracts and various forms of emotional illness. Many other embassy staff developed lymphomas, and three ambassadors in a row suffered severe or terminal disease after taking up residence in Moscow*. [*Secret and Suppressed by Jim Keith, Feral Press, 1993. The Encyclopedia of Mind Control, Adventures Unlimited Press, 1997.]

"The use of ELF escalated when the Soviet Union built the first strategic mind control device. As we have seen, the world's largest radio frequency transmitter began to beam mind control waves at the West on 4 July 1976. This awesome mind-control transmitter was code named: 'Woodpecker'. The document quoted in Appendix III, describes the 'Woodpecker' mind-control ELF transmitter. Doctor Andrija Puharich, a top US expert on mind-control, states:

"'Since July 4, 1976 the Soviet Union has been bombarding many parts of the world with ELF transmitters... a total of 14 giant transmitters are known to exist world-wide... When the Soviets went on the air in July 4, 1976 with their 100-megawatt transmissions of extremely low frequency waves (ELF) the intelligence community of the US was caught unaware of this new technology. The Soviets' ELF pulses covered the frequency range of the human brain. No one knew what the purpose of this new technology was. I had a hypothesis that this was a new mind-control weapon that could entrain a human being's EEG. Bob Beck and I designed an experiment that conclusively proved that the Soviet transmissions could indeed entrain the human brain, and thereby induce behavioural modification. I reported this finding to the intelligence community in the US, and my paper was promptly classified. A CIA commission of Inquiry reported to President Carter that there was no substance to our finding. Today, five years later, all of our findings have been confirmed by various agencies of the US Government. However, they went one step beyond our findings, and proved that a certain ELF frequency (Classified) will cause cancer. I have repeated these experiments, and found this to be true.'

"This gigantic mind-control weapon was - as we have also seen - powered by the Chernobyl nuclear power complex in the Ukraine. Edward K. Naumov, Director of the Institute of Technical Parapsychology, Moscow, is on record as stating:

"'A psychotronic generator can influence an individual, or a whole crowd of people. It can affect a person's psyche mentally or emotionally. It can affect memory and attention span. A psychotronic device can cause physical fatigue, disorientation, and alter a person's behaviour.'

"So with this development the Soviets had discovered a method of affecting the neurological functioning of entire populations. Appendix III, states:

"'1982, US Navy confirms that Soviet signals are indeed psychoactive and can cause mental depression at 6.66Hz and at 11Hz can lead to manic and riotous behaviour in humans.'

"As we have seen, top neuro-scientist Dr Gerald Edelman has shown that brain neurones compete with each other, and that unused neural connections within the brain cause those cells to die. This means that the brain connections are easily changed throughout life. Prolonged exposure to ELF may change the brain's neural wiring by stimulating behaviour and emotions that are not normal. Visualise a barrage of ELF from the 'Woodpecker' transmitters that forced normal brains into abnormal or unstable states of consciousness. The normal mental connections in the brain would gradually die out - if the ELF barrage was for long enough. 'Woodpecker's' 10Hz ELF signal continued transmission from 1976 until the fall of the Soviet Union - well over a decade. In time, the constant ELF stimulation of people's brains may have resulted in permanent adverse effects on the citizens of the West.

"Doctor Robert Becker, a Los Angeles physicist, looked at the 'Woodpecker' broadcast and the effects of its ELF signals in the late seventies. He stated, 'It's highly likely that the Woodpecker signal is causing neurological changes in 30 per cent of the population.' Becker, now at the Syracuse VA Hospital, goes on to warn: 'The ultimate weapon is manipulation of our electromagnetic environment. We're dealing here with the most important scientific discovery ever - the nature of life... An informed public is the only defence.' The intended result of this strategic psychotronic weapon system was that it would make Western society more likely to implode, becoming more selfish and much less effective at fighting external enemies, turning instead against itself.

"Margaret Thatcher, President Jimmy Carter and President Pierre Trudeau were sent a classified document by Puharich, on 13 March 1977, detailing the effects of ELF on human populations. Thatcher, who was at that time the leader of the opposition, as a chemistry graduate would have appreciated the true power of ELF mind control - if she did indeed read that document.

"By the eighties Dr. Ross Adey, working at the leading Pandora project, had performed many crucial experiments using radio frequency and microwave radiation for inducing mind control. As we have seen he used them as carrier waves for extremely low frequency (ELF) modulations, which enabled him to modify brain responses at a distance; Adey found he could change brain function and hence behaviour using these radio frequency and microwave beams. He found that radio frequency waves could mimic natural brain frequencies and override the normal brain rhythms with the ones broadcast by the microwave mind-control device.

"It was not possible to broadcast mind-control commands directly into the brain by use of microwave beams. All that was needed was an ELF catalogue of every specific brain frequency for each mood, action and thought. Indeed it was found that each behavioural set in humans had a distinctive frequency: anger (11Hz), suicide (6.66Hz), aversion (4.5Hz), hysteria, trauma, serial killing, paranoia, lust... Microwave transmitters of this type can beam specific mood-inducing excitation potentials at the victims. In effect, Adey, had discovered that a mental state can be initiated by a coded ELF signal on a microwave carrier beam.

"Similar wave forms were used by researcher C. S. Blackman in the 1970s* [*Electronics and Wireless World: 'The healing face of electromagnetic fields'; 1993.]

"He noted a set of narrow field intensity parameters of microwave irradiation effects that was greatest at 0.75 mW/cm²; this caused the neurones to release calcium ions to the greatest extent.

"Adey repeated Blackman's experiments and confirmed that a specific microwave intensity between 0.1 and 1 mW/cm² had the most effect on brain cells.

"The document in Appendix III shows that victims can also be made ill or even killed by use of microwave devices. It goes on to say:

"'One physiological effect which has been demonstrated is heart seizure... another possibility is alteration of the permeability of the blood brain barrier. This could allow neurotoxins in the blood to cross. As a result, an individual could develop severe neuropathological symptoms and either die or become seriously impaired neurologically.'

"Modern developments of psychotronic technology use special types of microwave beams called MASERs. These are the laser equivalent of microwave beams. Ludicrous though it sounds, these MASER (Microwave Amplification by Stimulation of Emitted Radiation) beams have been used to develop something called synthetic telepathy - the ability to read people's minds' from a distance. Effectively, this electronic scanning of victims' brains may be a possibility by using an array of MASERS to record sublocalised thought remotely by monitoring the electromagnetic (EM) emissions from peoples' brains.

"Head of US Special Forces Major General Schacknow gave a lecture on synthetic telepathy in July 1992 at Fort Bragg, North Carolina.* [*Source: Researcher on mind control, David D. Guyatt, in phone conversation with the author.] 'Today the ability to remotely transmit microwave voices inside a target's head is known inside the pentagon as "synthetic telepathy",' he said. In synthetic telepathy, the weak electromagnetic signals in the brain, associated with subvocalised thought, are connected to a computer by use of electrodes, or in more advanced mechanisms by the aforementioned MASER beams. Sophisticated computer systems have apparently learnt to read the subvocalised thoughts in the brains, by associating a specific brain excitation potential with a particular word. Synthetic telepathy may detect the 15Hz, 5 milliwatt auditory cortex brain emissions that are linked with the excitation potentials in the brain associated with subvocalised thought.

"New technology, involving millimetre wave technology, has enabled devices to be built which can scan through walls and look inside bodies like X-rays. This enables security personnel to see a target in his own home and to track him throughout the house. Further to this, being able to see inside the victim's head would allow computer-controlled targeting of specific centres in the brain. The victim's brain emissions can be made to interact constructively or destructively with the pulsed-frequency MASER, so that remote monitoring of victims' thought might be possible.

"Using ELF audiograms carried by a single pulse-modulated microwave device or MASER, subvocalised thoughts could be placed in the victim's brain. This gives synthetic telepathy operators the ability to enter into conversations with the person by the Frey effect, named after the US scientist who found that microwaves could be used to remotely transmit voices and sounds directly into the brains of humans. The DIA [US Department of Defense Intelligence Agency] document states (not included in this book), 'Sounds and possibly even words which appear to be originating intracranially can be induced by signal modulations at very low power density.' In the future, visual cortex excitation potentials could also be broadcast into the person's brain so that illusory images are projected into the brain in order to build up a virtual reality.

Microwave phones and mind control in the UK

"So that is what is possible. Imagine a British intelligence agent or agency willing to use this technology against its citizens.

"The author has tested many microwave phones, and has found that they produce about 0.75 mW/cm² at the earpiece. This is the intensity that Dr Ross Adey found was optimal for mind control. ELF is also given off by cellular phones and their numerous transmitters, so that the brain of the user is affected by these signals. The phones are also pulse modulated, and carry ELF, like the signals Dr Ross Adey used. So in some respects mobile phones completely duplicate mind control devices. (It seems likely that regular use of the mobile phone may make you mentally tired, and interfere with memory, intelligence and the will to do things which require mental effort.)

"Evidence that the GM900 (Hz) and GM1800 (Hz) microwave mobile phone network may be a major health hazard is now coming to public attention. The Defence Intelligence Agency (DIA) document entitled 'Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation (Radiowaves and Microwaves) Eurasian Communist Countries' in Appendix IV, confirms that microwave frequencies similar to those of cellular phones may cause health problems. It states:

"'Histological examination of the cerebral cortex cells from rats exposed to UHF at 5 to 15 micro Watts per cm² revealed the onset of sclerosis and the formation of vacuoles in some of the cells - in plain language this is called brain damage.'

"Equipment to test the frequency and intensity of microwave phones shows that they produce signals similar to Soviet microwave weapons. Two cellular phones I examined were producing over 100 mW/cm² and 50 mW/cm² respectively. These levels of intensity are dangerous, as according to the DIA document in Appendix IV:

"'Examination of the brains of rabbits sacrificed after exposure to 10 cm microwaves at power densities of 20 to 30 mW/cm² revealed hyperemia of the meninges, distension of superficial vessels, and small extravasations of blood in deeper brain areas.'

"In an article in New Scientist entitled 'Cancer scare for cellphone users' by Stewart Fist (10 May 1997), it was found that mice treated with microwave radiation from cellphone intensity sources for half an hour a day developed 2.4 times as many lymphomas after 18 months than unexposed mice. Consequently, 12 million mobile phone users in the UK may be at risk from developing cancer. Roger Coghill, a leading researcher in this area, found that mobile phones on standby mode lowered the activity of white blood cells to ten per cent of normal activity after exposure to cellphone microwaves. These cellphones may therefore cause significant health problems even if not used. A variety of cellphones have been tested to see how dangerous they are. Many of them fall into the range of intensities and frequencies used by Soviet microwave weapons as shown in the DIA document in Appendix IV. The DIA research dates from 1976, showing that the dangers were known about over twenty years ago.

"It is a rule of the intelligence community that you hide things in plain view. Getting the public to accept microwave mind-control weapons which affect their behaviour under the guise of mobile phones would be a stroke of genius!

"A UK land-line telephone can also be used for killing a targeted user, or mind-controlling the population. How is this possible? If one tests a UK phone with a frequency counter, it will be found that it gives off a signal of around 40 MHz. This carrier signal can then be amplitude modulated at ELF frequencies to induce these ELF mind-control signals into the brain via contact with the head. These ELF fields can alter the behaviour of human cells or the body in general.

"Eldon Bryd, a scientist for the Naval Surface Weapon Center of the US Navy, in one of his 1986 lectures on the effects of microwaves, stated: 'We can alter the behaviour of cells, tissues, organs and whole organisms; you can cause up to six times higher foetus mortality and birth defects in laboratory animals, and these fields are so weak you can hardly deter them. You can also do genetic engineering with ELF weak magnetic fields without micro-surgical techniques that are currently employed to do genetic engineering. It is known how to induce malignant tumours in human cells - and how to remove them. You can entrain human beings' brain waves across a room with very weak magnetic fields.'

"So one can see how ELF transmitted down the phone line can be used to induce paranoia in people (4.5 Hz), depression (6.66 Hz), mania (11 Hz), or to give them cancer - a silent and covert way of eliminating UK dissidents.

"One can also use gun diodes as methods of disabling 'problem' individuals by placing them behind their vehicles' dashboards so that they are irradiated by a 10 GHz-frequence microwave beam which can be focused by a small horn antenna. This will cause the driver of the car to have headaches, sickness, eventual brain damage and may lead to tumour development.

Non-lethal weapons

"So what if British intelligence agencies were to use this technology to its full potential? For a start, microwave weapons are impossible to detect unless you have a detector. They are classed as non-lethal weapons, because they are devices that disable or slowly kill the victim, rather than conventional weapons which are designed to kill quickly. Lasers designed to blind the enemy, ultrasonic devices to stun, glue to stick victims to the ground, microwave weapons, pepper sprays to blind temporarily and incapacitate: the list of non-lethal weapons is extensive, but very little is published concerning them beyond manufacturing specifications. So if British intelligence agencies were to use them, they could be sure they would be difficult to trace. For example, it is not beyond the bounds of possibility that British intelligence agents or agencies could run a fleet of psychotronic weapon-carrying vans, as well as portable microwave weapons that could be deployed near a dissident's home, in which case the weapons could be disguised as communications equipment. The microwave weapon could have ELF frequencies superimposed upon it that would influence the behaviour and health of targets within the van's range.

"These devices, as we have seen, can in principle be used to cause nerve damage, cancers, mental collapse leading to suicides, or tissue failure leading to heart attacks.

"The massive number of microwave masts and antennae that dot the country, some of which are used for the microwave phone network, all use pulse-modulated microwaves and carry ELF signals which affect the brain, giving them a potential as strategic mind-control devices. It would be practical for British intelligence to use them against the civilian population in times of trouble. In modern democracies it is no longer acceptable to shoot rioters, or torture dissidents by normal means - but microwave weapons leave no marks or gaping wound.* [*Mind Control/ World Control: The Encyclopedia of Mind Controlby Jim Keith, Adventures Unlimited Press, 1997. Defense Intelligence Agency, "Psychotronic Warfare: Spiritual Access", 1982.]

"My own research has shown how it is possible to build a variety of these devices, from tactical microwave mind-control weapons to the strategic devices used by the Soviet Union.

The latest in surveillance techniques

"The technology exists in the form of sophisticated millimetre wave scanners to look through walls, so that people can be seen in their homes. Ten Ghz, which is used for police speed traps on every major road in Britain, is an ideal frequency for this type of weapon, as it propagates as a beam one can target at specific individuals. When firing such microwave beams through walls at one specific target, bricks and concrete are relatively transparent to this radiation, although some materials such as steel block the beam. If a victim is to be driven mad or disabled without anyone else being aware that he or she is being targeted, the technology for this is easy to build; a simple 10 Ghz device would suffice, fired at them through their own windows. To harm a whole household with microwaves is even simpler: the 2.4 Ghz signal is ideal as it spreads out to encompass a wider area, and is at a frequency one can legally broadcast in the UK - as it is used by microwave ovens.

"It would now be possible for British intelligence agents were they so motivated to discredit well-known people by driving them mad. Victims could be exposed to pulse-modulated microwaves which carry different types of madness and behavioural aberrations, encoded as ELF excitation potentials.

"A simple technology exists in the form of 2.4 Ghz transmitters which could easily be used for targeting the homes of victims, and a 10 Ghz weapon for specific individuals. This is all that is needed to carry out microwave mind control and torture. MASERS, microwave lasers that fire a beam of microwave at the target rather like a ray gun, could also be used. These microwave weapons could even be used to burn out the gall bladder of the victims, or cause severe brain damage and brain tumours. Irradiating the optic nerve of the victim with the same ELF signal that is sent to the brain by this nerve (in this case 25 Hz) could cause the nerve tissue to overload, so that the victim would be blinded. As mentioned previously in the DIA document, if a microwave beam containing the ELF signals given off by the heart were to be fired at the chest, it would put the heart into a chaotic state, often explained as a heart attack.

"As can be viewed in Appendix IV, document 25-6:

"'One physiological effect which has been demonstrated is heart seizure. This has been accomplished experimentally in frogs by synchronizing a pulsed ultrahigh frequency microwave signal of low average-power density with the depolarization of the myocardium and beaming the signal at the thoracic area. A frequency probably could be found which would provide sufficient penetration of the chest wall of humans to accomplish the same effect. Another possibility is alteration of the permeability of the blood-brain barrier. This could allow neurotoxims in the blood to cross. As a result, an individual could develop severe neuropathological symptoms and either die or become seriously impaired neurologically.

"'A study published in 1972 by the US Army Mobility Equipment Research and Development Center, titled "Analysis of Microwaves for Barrier Warfare" examines the plausibility of using radio frequency energy in barrier-counterbarrier warfare. It discusses both anti-personnel and anti-material effects of lethal and nonlethal applications for meeting the barrier requirements of delay, immobilization, and increased target exposure. The report concludes that:

"'a. It is possible to field a truck-portable microwave barrier system that will completely immobilize personnel in the open with present-day technology and equipment.

"'b. There is a strong potential for a microwave system that would be capable of delaying or immobilizing personnel in vehicles.'

"Paralysis could be induced in the target by use of this method of broadcasting preparatory sets encoded on microwave beams: a pulse-modulated microwave beam, carrying an ELF signal identical to the one in the motor neurone centre of the brain (around 10 Hz), may be used to jam the victim's motor co-ordination. This is analogous to radar jamming, using a more powerful signal at the same frequency to swamp out the enemy's radar. Pulse-modulated microwave weapons which broadcast the ELF preparatory sets of the motor cortex at the victim, will paralyze the victim without killing them. Breathing and heartbeat are involuntary actions controlled by another set of frequencies in another part of the brain. By disrupting the connections between brain cells, memory may be clouded or even erased. Research by the US Navy and a leading British Company looked at a way of heating specific parts of the brain using microwave weapons to cause brain damage. A silent way of inducing brain damage in dissidents?* [* Secret and Suppressed, Jim Keith, Feral Press.] We have the technology.

Orwellian Britain

"It seems that low-level microwave radiation excites the hydrogen bonds in the cell and can interfere with meiosis (cell division). This causes cell division to go wrong, which leads to cancerous cells and hence tumours. It seems strange that a few milliCuries of ionising radiation will get the National Radiological Protection Board excited, while high-intensity cancer-inducing non-ionising microwave radiation goes unchecked. So high are levels near the microwave transmitters that litter the countryside, that frequency counters show dangerous levels of radiation similar to the levels used by the Soviets for their microwave weapons (as documented in the DIA document of Appendix IV. This constant radiation with ELF signals superimposed by the mobile phone network could at these power levels cause a constant leakage of calcium ions from the nerve and brain cells. The effect of this might be mental befuddlement, or a lack of energy for aggressive action or active, difficult thought. Since calcium flow out of brain cells affects memory and other thought processes, a decrease in intelligence can be attributed to these transmitters. Placing them near schools and hospitals would seem to be a grave mistake.

"Microwave transmitters that can induce stress and confusion, and damage health, cover the rooftops in Britain's inner cities. These transmitters may broadcast extremely low frequency (ELF) signals which mimic natural brain waves and thus interfere with them. This, together with the massive increase in mobile phones, has given the UK security forces the ability - if they so desired - to mind control the UK population.

"Greenham Common protesters displayed symptoms of vertigo, retinal bleeding, face burns (received even at night), nausea, sleep disturbances, palpitations, loss of concentration, loss of memory, disorientation, severe headaches, temporary paralysis, faulty speech co-ordination, irritability, and a sense of panic in non-panic situations. A malignantly motivated security service could in theory have caused these symptoms. Some of the women peace protestors subsequently died of cancer."

This book by Rifat, which I have just quoted, ends with four appendices (four documents) of a total of 283 pages: I. "DIA document: Controlled Offensive Behavior - USSR (July 1972)"; II. "DIA document: Soviet and Czechoslovakian Parapsychology Research (September 1975)"; III. "Sixth World Congress of the International Ozone Association (May 1983)"; and IV. "DIA document: Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation (radio waves and microwaves) Eurasian Communist Countries (March 1976)".

See also: Tim Rifat, "The ESP of Espionage." Http://brazilboycott.org/profreedom/esp.html ; Tim Rifat, "Microwave Mind-Control." Http://brazilboycott.org/profreedom/mmc_tf.html ; Tim Rifat, "Mind Control in the UK." Http://brazilboycott.org/profreedom/mc_uk.html ; Tim Rifat, "The Secret Use of Microwaves by British Police and Army." Http://www.rense.com/general11/mm.htm ; Tim Rifat, "UK Mind Control." (Link131) ; Judy Wall, "Military Use of Mind Control Weapons." Http://brazilboycott.org/profreedom/mumcw_jw.html ; Judy Wall, 'Military Use of Mind Control Weapons', Nexus 5, No 6, Nov 1998.

XIX. BIBLIOGRAPHY for my web posting.


Can Cell Phones Damage DNA and Cause Cancer? Dr. Henry Lai

Uploaded on Feb 26, 2012


Dr. Henry Lai, from the University of Washington, gives a talk on the genetic effects of cell phones and Radiofrequency radiation.”



Lai, Henry. "Fig. 1. Unexposed control, The bundle is simply DNA."



Lai, Henry. "Fig. 2. X-ray calibration: After 6.4 rads. DNA strand breaks are evident.."


Lai, Henry. "Fig. 3. X-ray calibration: After 25.6 rads. DNA strand breaks are now very obvious.." Http://www.electric-words.com/cell/electaus/electrophoresis.html (Link132) . Picture also at: http://www.electric-words.com/cell/electaus/calib3.gif

Lai, Henry. "Fig. 4 Assay showing effect of 2 hrs of microwave exposure (2.45GHz) at a SAR (absorption) level of 0.6 W/kg [about cellphone handset levels]. DNA strand breaks are also obvious." Http://www.electric-words.com/cell/electaus/electrophoresis.html (Link132) . Picture also at: http://www.electric-words.com/cell/electaus/comet3.gif

Comparison of penetration of radiation from a cell phone in the brain of an adult, a 10 year old, and a five year old. These thermal images are found at http://spot.colorado.edu/~maziara/brain2.jpg or at http://thegeomancer.netfirms.com/cellphones.htm

Salford. "Normal Rat Brain, Rat Brain after Cellphone Exposure." http://spot.colorado.edu/~maziara/brain1.bmp , or at http://pages.britishlibrary.net/orange/biologeffects.htm , or at http://www.marianneblank.de/mut/Salford%20Studie.pdf .


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Bad Reception: The Wireless Revolution in San Francisco.Video by Doug Loranger, 2003. http://www.emrnetwork.org/conference/conferences.htm Review by Mark Scaramella of Bad Reception: The Wireless Revolution in San Francisco.. http://www.emrnetwork.org/conference/bad_reception_review.htm Review: "Are the Electrical 'Toys' that we have HURTING US?" Http://www.rockhardsoftware.com/EMVideo.html

Broadcast Blues. Documentary film, VHS, by Len Aitken, on the conflict over the plan to put up a new HDTV tower on residential Lookout Mountain, CO. http://www.emrnetwork.org/conference/conferences.htm Review: "Are the Electrical 'Toys' that we have HURTING US? Http://www.rockhardsoftware.com/EMVideo.html

Cell Towers Forum, State of the Science/State of the Law. Three-tape volume. http://wave-guide.org/library/bibliography.html (Link 8)

Electromagnetic Radiation: A Scientific Overview. Video by Dr. Theodore Litovitz, physicist, Catholic University of America. http://energyfields.org/film_order.html (Link 10)

Electropollution and Cancer. Video by Dr. William Rea, Environmental Pollutants, World Research Foundation. Http://www.geocities.com/emrsafety/reportsonEMR.htm

EMR Network's July 12, 2002 Congressional staff briefing, the subject of which was "revisions to the Telecommunications Act of 1996." The goal of the proposed legislation is to restore local zoning authority for mobile phone and broadcast towers and antennas. PowerPoint presentation. Presentation for .ppt download. http://www.emrnetwork.org/conference/conferences.htm

Public Exposure: DNA, Democracy and the Wireless Revolution.Co-produced by Libby Kelley, CWTI and EON International, first place award at the Santa Cruz Earth Vision Film Festival, 2001. http://energyfields.org/film_order.html (Link 10) . For a summary see "Towers of Babble, Bags of Gold: Cells, Lies and the Wireless "Revolution," by Jim Heddle and Mary Beth Brangan. http://www.sfsu.edu/~holistic/whatsnew2001/Down/Cell_Phones/PUBLIC_EXPOSURE.html .

Visual tour of the impact of tower/antennas at the local level. PowerPoint presentation. Presentation for .ppt download. http://www.emrnetwork.org/conference/conferences.htm


Able, Charley. (March 27, 2004). Reopen TV tower hearings, judge rules: Judge Rules More Hearings Needed on Lookout Mountain Tower Proposal. Http://www.rockymountainnews.com/drmn/local/article/0,1299,DRMN_15_2762406,00.html (Link119)

Alarm Call for Mobile Users. [Angelos' $3 billion lawsuits against Vodafone and Verizon] Http://www.preda.org/archives/2001/r01011401.html

Anatomy of an Antenna. Http://www.astrophys-assist.com/educate/anatomy/antenna.htm

Ancueil - antennes - relais, France, Bizet School Antenna Removed. Http://www.mayetievillage.fr/QuickPlace/antennes-relais/Main.nsf (Link11)

Angelo & Carlo. Http://www.powerwatch.org.uk/news/news2x.htm

Antenna Tower - Hearing July 22, 2003. Http://www.citymtnviews.com/AT-Hearing072203a.php4

Appeals court overturns cell tower ruling. http://www.ledger-enquirer.com/mld/ledgerenquirer/3558116.htm (Link4)

B.C. Canada BANS School Antennas http://pub55.ezboard.com/fcellularradiationfrm11.showMessage?topicID=19.topic (Link23)

Beaulieu, Michelle. "Suicides linked to electromagnetic fields." Http://www.personalmd.com/news/n0316052943.shtml

Beaver, Christopher. "The End of Innocence: Cellphones, Cellphone Antennas, Television Transmission Towers, Digital Wireless...and Cancer." Http://www.feb.se/Bridlewood/GOLDSMTH.HTM

Beck, Dr. Robert. "Subliminal Warfare: ELF - Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields. They affect us all in ways we may never consciously realise!" Http://brazilboycott.org/profreedom/sublim_warfare.html

Begich, Dr. Nick and James Roderick. (2000). "Cell Phones - Convenience or 21st Century Plague?" Http://www.rense.com/general2/cell.htm

Bergman-Venezia, Cathy. "Cell Tower Static: Consumers Cause Interference in the Race to a Wireless World." Http://www.feb.se/Bridlewood/CELLTOWR.HTM

Beware - Using a Mobile Phone Can Ruin Your Sex Life. Http//www.cprnews.com/articles.cfm?cat=4&id=104 (Link61)

Blood Brain Barrier Alteration: 30 Years Duplicating Studies. Http://www.grn.es/electropolucio/omega158.htm

Bogus AntiRadiation Sellers Busted. Http://www.cellular.co.za/news_2003/082203-bogus_antiradiation_sellers_bust.htm (Link84)

Bolton, David R. and Dent A. Sick, "Power Lines and Property Values: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly," http://www.powerlinefacts.com/Power_Lines_and_Property_Values.htm .

Bond, Sandy, Si-Yeoul Mun, Pornsiri Sakornvanasak, and Nick McMahon, "The Impact of Cellular Phone Base Station Towers on Property Values," Ninth Pacific-Rim Real Estate Society Conference, Brisbane, Australia 19-22 January 2003. Http://business.unisa.edu.au/prres/Proceedings/Proceedings2003/Bond_The_Impact_Of_Cellular_Phone_Base_Station_Towers_On_Property_Values.pdf (Link29)

Bridlewood Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs) Information Service, Information Files. Http://www.feb.se/Bridlewood/MENU.HTM

Bridlewood Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs) Information Service, 1999 EMF News. Http://www.feb.se/Bridlewood/NEWS1999.HTM

Bridlewood Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs) Information Service. EMFs & Schools & Playgrounds. http://www.feb.se/Bridlewood/SCHOOLS.HTM (Link2)

Britain Launches Crusade for Mobile Phone Safety. Http://thegeomancer.netfirms.com/cellphones.htm

Broadband from the Sky in 2002? Http://slashdot.org/articles/00/04/15/2327211_F.shtml

Broadband >> News >> Canadian BPL - Hydro-Québec to launch trials. Http://www.dslreports.com/shownews/35935?nav=5

Brown, Gary. (2000). "Wireless Devices, Standards, and Microwave Radiation in the Education Environment." Http://members.iinet.net.au/~emfacts/wlans.html

Cell Phone Convenience or 21st Century Plague? Http://www.earthpulse.com/products/cellphoneplague.htm

Cell Phone Nightmare Returns. Http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/1999/11/fotc9.html

Cell Phone Radiation. Http://www.safetyhero.com/cellphonearticles.htm

Cell Phone Safety Tips. Http://cbsnews.cbs.com/stories/1999/12/03/bradcasts/main728883.shtml (Link37)

Cell Phone Suit Will Get Its Day in Court. Http://www.cellular.co.za/news_2001/01232001-cell_phone_suit_will_get_its_day.htm (Link74)

Cell-phone technology as we know it now must be abandoned. Http://www.buergerwelle.com/body_emf-omega-news_25-10-03.html

Cell Phones. Http://www.tuberose.com/Cell_Phones.html

Cell Phones. Http://www.freeessays.cc/db/18/exw305.shtml

Cell Phones: Can You Hear Me Now? Http://www.fourwinds10.com/news/06-health/C-harmful-products/2004/06C-02-27-04-cell-phones-can-you-hear-me-now.html (Link69)

Cell Phones and Cancer: You Don't Deserve Brain Cancer - You Deserve Facts! Http://www.rfsafe.com/article484.html?osCsid=10e74389a474e501bfe6747302e8230 (Link59)

Cell Phones Kills 40 Million Birds (23/7/02). Http://www.grn.es/electropolucio/omega06.htm

Cell Tower and Broadcast RF Measurements. Http://www.emfservices.com/cell-towers.htm

Cellphones could be harmful - US Government. Http://www.cellular.co.za/news_2003/050203-cellphones_could_be_harmful.htm (Link81)

Cellular Industry Condemns China Plan to Impose Strictest Radiation Standards. Http://www.health-concerns.org/health_concerns/survey_news.asp

Cellular phone (mobile phone) causes: cancer, biological damage, headaches. Http://www.cancer-health.org/Cellular_phone_symptoms.html

Cellular Phones, Mobile and Base Station Antenna Radiation and Human Health . http://pages.britishlibrary.net/orange/ (Link 5)

"A Cellular Phone Tower on Ossining High School?" Dr. L. Plachta. http://www.cyburban.com/~lplachta/safeweb2.htm (Link 9)

Cellular Telephones and Brain Cancer: Current Research. Http://ehpnet1.niehs.nih.gov/docs/2001/109-5/correspondence.html (Link73)

Chernicoff, David. "Hughes DIRECWAY Satellite Internet Access." Http://www.connectedhomemagazine.com/Networking/Articles/Index.cfm?ArticleIE=25382 (Link121)

Cherry, Dr. Neil. "Actual or potential effects of ELF and RF/MW radiation on enhancing violence and homicide, and accelerating aging of human, animal or plant cells [abstract]." (Link114)

Cherry, Dr. Neil. "Brain Cancer Table [summary of over 95 epidemiological studies involving power frequency fields, radio frequencies and microwave exposures, including cell phone usage showing elevated brain cancer rates in children and adults in over 420 exposed groups]." (Link115)

Cherry, Dr. Neil. "Cardiac Effects of Natural and Artificial EMR [abstract]." Http://www.neilcherry.com/cart/index.php?mode=print_abstract&productid=19 (Link86)

Cherry, Dr. Neil. "Cataract as a side effect of unprotected exposure to microwave hyperthermia treatment of breast cancer [abstract]." (Link87)

Cherry, Dr. Neil. "The Causal relationship between residential electromagnetic field exposures and Childhood Cancer [abstract]." Http://www.neilcherry.com/cart/index.php?mode=print_abstract&productid=38 (Link88)

Cherry, Dr. Neil. [Cell Phones and Cancer] http://www.ondakiller.it/cherrydoc3.htm

Cherry, Neil. "Cherry on Safe Exposure Levels." (89 pages) http://pages.britishlibrary.net/orange/cherryonexplevel.htm

Cherry, Dr. Neil. "Childhood Cancer in the vicinity of the Sutro Tower, San Francisco [abstract]." (Link89)

Cherry, Dr. Neil. "Criticism of the Health Assessment in the ICNIRP Guidelines for Radiofrequency and Microwave Radiation (100kHz - 300 Ghz)." [166 pages] Http://www.emfguru.org/CellPhone/cherry2/ICNIRP-2.htm

Cherry, Dr. Neil. "EMF-EMR Reduces Melatonin in Animals and People [abstract]." (Link90)

Cherry, Dr. Neil. "EMR spectrum principle [abstract]." (Link91)

Cherry, Dr. Neil. "Environmental Health Factors for Motor Neuron Disease [abstract]." (Link92)

Cherry, Dr. Neil. "Epidemiological principles for ELF/EMR Studies [abstract]." (Link93)

Cherry, Dr. Neil. "Epidemiological studies of enhanced Brain CNS Cancer incidence and mortality from EMR/EMF exposures [abstract]." (Link116)

Cherry, Dr. Neil. "Evidence of brain cancer from occupational exposure to pulsed microwaves from a police radar [abstract]." (Link94)

Cherry, Dr. Neil. "Evidence of Health Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation, To the Australian Senate Inquiry into Electromagnetic Radiation [abstract]." (Link95)

Cherry, Dr. Neil. "Evidence of Neurological effects of Electromagnetic Radiation: Implications for degenerative disease and brain tumour from residential, occupational, cell site and cellphone exposures [abstract]." (Link96)

Cherry, Dr. Neil. "Evidence that Electromagnetic fields from high voltage powerlines and domestic power wires and appliances, are hazardous to human health [abstract]. (Link97)

Cherry, Dr. Neil. "Evidence that Electromagnetic fields from high voltage powerlines and in buildings, are hazardous to human health, especially to young children." Http://www.geocities.com/electricalconcerns/ElectromagneticFieldsAreHazardous.html (Link133)

Cherry, Dr. Neil. "Evidence that Electromagnetic Radiation is Genotoxic: The implications for the epidemiology of cancer and cardiac, neurological and reproductive effects." (46 pages) http://www.grn.es/electropolucio/cherry600.htm

Cherry, Dr. Neil. "Evidence that Electromagnetic Radiation is Genotoxic: The implications for the epidemiology of cancer and cardiac, neurological and reproductive effects [abstract]." (Link98)

Cherry, Dr. Neil. "Evidence that EMF/EMR causes Leukaemia/Lymphoma in Adults and Children [abstract]." (Link117)

Cherry, Dr. Neil. "Evidence to support the a priori hypothesis that Electromagnetic Radiation across the spectrum is a Ubiquitous Universal Genotoxic Carcinogen [abstract]." (Link99)

Cherry, Neil. "Health Effects Associated with Cell Phone Towers." http://pages.britishlibrary.net/orange/cherryonbasestations.htm (Link 6)

Cherry, Dr. Neil. "Health Effects Associated with Mobile Base Stations in Communities: The Need for Health Studies." Version without graphs or paragraph spacing at http://www.mapcruzin.com/news/cell062501d.htm

Cherry, Neil. "IARC's 1982 Benzene Human Carcinogen Assessment applied to Microwaves [abstract]." (Link101)

Cherry, Neil. "ICNIRP critique 2000 Criticism of the Health Assessment in the ICNIRP Guidelines for Radiofrequency and Microwave Radiation (100 kHz - 300 Ghz) [abstract]." (Link102) [ICNIRP is International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection]

Cherry, Dr. Neil. "Independent academic review of biological and epidemiological effects of cellphone radiation [abstract]." (Link103)

Cherry, Dr. Neil. "Living near a broadcast tower can be hazardous to your health: Health effects in the vicinity of Radio/TV towers and mobile phone base stations [abstract]." (Link104)

Cherry, Dr. Neil. "Medical hypothesis, Schumann Resonance and intelligence [abstract]." (Link105)

Cherry, Dr. Neil. "Motorola Funded Counter Research on Microwave DNA Damage [abstract]." (Link106)

Cherry, Dr. Neil. "A New Paradigm, the physical, biological and health effects of Radiofrequency Microwave Radiation [abstract]." (Link107)

Cherry, Dr. Neil. "Reproductive effects from EMF/EMR exposure [abstract]." (Link108)

Cherry, Dr. Neil. "Schumann Resonance and sunspot relations to human health effects in Thailand [abstract]." (Link109)

Cherry, Dr. Neil. "Schumann Resonances, a plausible biophysical mechanism for the human health effects of Geomagnetic Activity [abstract]." (Link110)

Cherry, Dr. Neil. "Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) related to Solar Activity through the Schumann Resonance mechanism [abstract]." (Link111)

Cherry, Dr. Neil. "Suicide and Solar Activity linked through the Schumann Resonance Signal [abstract]." (Link112)

Cherry, Dr. Neil. "Welcome to Cherry Environmental Health Consulting Ltd." Http://www.neilcherry.com

Cherry, Dr. Neil. "World Conference on Breast Cancer - Ottawa, Canada, 26-31 July 1999 [abstract]." (Link113)

Chia, Sin-Eng, Hwee-Pin Chia, and Jit-Seng Tan. "Prevalence of Headache among Hand-Held Cellular Telephone Users in Singapore: A Community Study."Environ Health Perspect 108 (2000) 1059-1062. Http://ehis,niehs.nih.gov/members/2000/108p1059chia/chia-full.html (Link100)

China radiation law could fry mobile industry: A steep cap on mobile phone radiation could mean a £1.6bn bill for mobile phone makers. Http://www.cellular.co.za/news_2002/061202-china_radiation_law_could_fry_mo.htm (Link80)

Colorado Legislature's Resolution against FCC. Http://www.emfguru.org/Law/colorado.html

Colorado Resolution against FCC Preemption (Carney) http://www.emfguru.org/Law/colorado-fcc.html

Comcast Media Center: Distribution Services. (Link126)

Comcast Media Center: Facilities. (Link127)

Comcast Media Center: Occasional Satellite. Http://comcastmediacenter.com/index.asp?path=distribution/satelliteOccastional.htm (Link123)

Comcast Media Center: Satellite Services. (Link124)

Comcast Media Center: Store & Forward. (Link125)

Comcast Media Center: Titan Earth Station (Link128)

Commercial Television and Wireless Cable Frequencies. http://pages.britishlibrary.net/orange/phillips_micro/index.htm (Link 7)

Communications Tower Sittings: The Telecommunications Act of 1996 and the Battle for Community Control. By Susan Lorde Martin. http://www.law.berkeley.edu/journals/btlj/articles/vol12/Martin/html/text.html (Link16)

Conflicts of Interest in Science: BEMS (BioElectroMagnetic Society) conflict of interest. Http://www.emfguru.org/conflicts/bems-conflict.html

Consumer Group Says China Cell Radiation Levels Unsafe. Http://www.cprnews.com/articles.cfm?cat=4&id=109

Covert Operations of the U.S. National Security Agency. Http://brazilboycott.org/profreedom/cov_us.html

CS Mobile Phone Gas Pump Fires. http://www.samsgarage.com/cs%20mobilee%20phone%20gas%20pump%20fires.htm (Link36)

Current Tower and Community News and Announcements. Http://www.c-a-r-e.org

(Curry) (Addo) Cellular Tower next to Residence. Http://www.wave-guide.org/archives/emf-l/May1999/(Curry)-(Addo)-Cellular-tower-next-to-residence-(fwd).html (Link55)

"The Death Village" - Brain Tumour Rates Rising in Europe, U.S. Http://www.grn.es/electropolucio/omega164.htm

DeBar, Don. "Residents Fight School Tower in Ossining, New York." Http://www.feb.se/Bridlewood/NEWS2000.HTM

Derbyshire, David. "Radiation rules made stricter 'as precaution'." (Filed: 31/03/2004) http://www.sartests.com/article2594.html?osCsid=afc46e8e987520cd30b111dbae9af055 (Link40)

Dialing up Danger - A CBS 2 Special Assignment. Http://www.health-concerns.org/health_concerns/registry_news?News9.asp?stStory Title=Dialing Up Danger (Link72)

Directv Internet Access. Http://www.satellitebuying.com/directv-internet-access.html

Direcway Satellite Systems. Http://www.rapidsatellite.com/direcway_land3.aspx

Electromagnetic fields 'raise suicide risk'. Http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/677256.stm

The Electromagnetic Radiation Health Threat - Part I - Backchat. Http://www.nzine.co.nz/features/neilcherry_bc1.html

Electromagnetic Surveys Limited - Definitions. http://www.em-surveys.co.uk/Definitions 1.html (Link13)

Electrosensitive from Canada reports. Http://www.grn.es/electropolucio/omega248.htm

The Elusive Hum in Taos, New Mexico. Http://homepages.tesco.net/~john.dawes2/taos.htm

Energy Citations Database (ECD) Document #6496290 - Investigation of microwave and radiofrequency radiation levels in Vernon Township, New Jersey, November 10-15, 1985. Http://www.osti.gov/energycitations/product.biblio.jsp?osti_id=6496290 (Link122)

Experts investigating biological effects of cell phone radiation asked to shut up or quit jobs. Http://www.laleva.cc/environment/cellphones.html

FCC Launches Proceeding on Allocation of Upper Millimeter Wave Bands. Http://www.harriswiltshire.com/news/Advisories/Regulatory/R_July02.pdf (Link120)

FCC to Study Impact of Cell Phone Towers. Http://www.sanluisobispo.com/mld/sanluisobispo/5763356.htm

Fist, Stewart. "Lai-Singh and the Comet Assays." Http://www.electric-words.com/cell/electaus/electrophoresis.html (Link132)

Fourth Circuit Finds Duty to Defend Cell Phone Manufacturers. Http://www.nixonpeabody.com/linked_media/publications/ILA_09152003.pdf (Link134)

Franklin, Curt. "How DSL Works." Http://www.howstuffworks.com/dsl.htm/printable

Freed, Ken. "Denver TV Stations in Digital Stymie." Http://www.kf.com/itv-denvertower2.html

Gamble, Steve. "The Dangers of EMF Radiation and What We Can Do to Improve Our Health in Today's Polluted World" http://www.equilibra.uk.com/emfsbio.shtml

Government Panel Recommends That Cell Phones Carry Warning Labels. Http://html.newsnet5.com/sh/news/stories/nat-news-20000512-002051.html (Link62)

Great Dreams Earth Changes - Weather Anomaly Page. Http://www.greatdreams.com/radar.htm

Grigoriev, Dr. Yuri. "Cell Towers - Results of Measurements and Estimation of Safety Limits for the Public." Http://www.land-sbg.gv.at/Proceedings_(07)_Grigoriev.pdf

Ground Wave Emergency Network, GWEN - A Threat. Http://www.eleastic.org/~fche/mirrors/www.textfiles.com/politics/gwen.txt (Link52)

GSM Phone Radiation - Phone A-Z. Http://www.cellular.co.za/health/radiation_gsm_phone_a-to-z.htm

GWEN Ground Wave Emergency Network - United States Nuclear Forces. Http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/usa/c3i/gwen.htm

[GWEN, mind control] http://www.weiwuwei.org/library/conspiracy/OpenLetterResp.htm

GWEN Towers, HAARP & Satellite GPS_EMF Control Grid. Http://www.mindcontrolforums.com/gwen-haarp-satellite-gps-emf-control-grid.htm (Link51)

Hands-Free Mobile Phones "Emit More Radiation". Http://www.cprnews.com/articles.cfm?cat=6&id=56

Hardell L, Nasman A, Pahlson A, Hallquist A, Hansson Mild K. "Use of cellular telephones and the risk for brain tumours: a case-control study."Int J Oncol 15 (1999) 113-116. See the original article: "Case-Control Study on Radiology Work, Medical X-ray Investigations, and Use of Cellular Telephones as Risk Factors for Brain Tumors." Http://www.emfguru.org/Research/hardel-study.html

Hardell Lennart, Asa, Nasman Anneli Pahlson, Arne Hallquist. "Case-Control Study on Radiology Work, Medical X-ray Investigations, and Use of Cellular Telephones as Risk Factors for Brain Tumors." MedGenMed, May 4, 2000 [Medscape, Inc.]

Hebert, H. Josef. "Discarded Cell Phones Harmful." Http://www.cprnews.com/articles.cfm?cat=4&id=132

Ho, Dr. Mae-Wan. Fields of Influence pt. 1 - Electromagnetic Fields Double Leukemia Risks. Http://www.i-sis.org.uk/FOI1.php

Ho, Dr. Mae-Wan. Fields of Influence pt. 2 - Mobile Phones & Cancer. Http://www.i-sis.org.uk/FOI2.php?printing=yes

Ho, Dr. Mae-Wan. Fields of Influence pt. 3 - Non-Thermal Effects. Http://www.i-sis.org.uk/FOI3.php

Ho, Dr. Mae-Wan. Fields of Influence pt. 4 - The Excluded Biology. Http://www.i-sis.org.uk/FOI4.php

Hogan, Mike. "Will Your Cell Phone Kill You?: We're all cell phone guinea pigs, yet the studies still outnumber definitive conclusions." Http://www.pcworld.com/news/article/0,aid,92444,00.asp

Houck, J.B. (2000) "Study: Human Cells Amplify Wireless Phone Radiation." Http://www.newsfactor.com/perl/story/5973.html

Huge lawsuits over mobile phones. Http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/1090343.stm

Hughes DIRECWAY High-Speed Satellite Internet. Http://www.direcway.tv

Human guinea pigs to test mobile phone risks. Http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/low/sci/tech/57213.stm

Hyland, G.J. "How Exposure to Base-station Radiation can Adversely Affect Humans." Http://www.emrnetwork.org/siting/exposure_base_station_radiation_hyland.pdf (Link38)

Hyland, G.J. "On the Inadequacy of Existing Safety Guidelines." Http://members.iinet.net.au/~emfacts/mobiles/hyland2.html

Hyland, G.J. "The Physiological and Environmental Effects of Non-ionising Electromagnetic Radiation" Private Treaty No. EP/IV/A/STOA/2000/07/03 http://www.emfguru.org/EMF/Physiological.html

Infrasound. http://www.lowertheboom.org/trice/infrasound.htm

Infrasound, Phillips Microtechnologies. http://tvtower.com/Commercial%20Television%20Frequencies.html#infrasound

Insurer Files Cell Phone Coverage Lawsuits. Http://www.insurancejournal.com/news/national/2001/08/20/14219.htm (Link65)

Izakovic. "Saturation Within." Http://www.deepspace4.com/pages/questions/saturationwithin/saturationwithin5.htm (Link53)

Judge rules against cell tower in Maine. Http://www.wave-guide.org/archives/emf-l/May2000/Judge-rules-againest-cell-tower-in-Maine-(Knight)-.html (Link39)

Karsky, Dick and Joel Cusick. "Notes on 2003 ION GPS Conference." (Link50)

Keith, Jim. "Death Rays: Methods of Mass Mind Control." Http://brazilboycott.org/profreedom/death_rays.html

Keith, Jim. "In Your Head: Experiments into Remote Mind Control Technology." Http://brazilboycott.org/profreedom/in_your_head.html

Koegel, Robert B., Esq. Cell Tower Siting under the Telecommunications Act of 1996. Http://www.nyenvlaw.com/Koegel/cellTower.htm

Kyocera Recalls Cell Phones [a handset that may exceed federal radiation emission standards]. Http://www.wired.com/news/business/0,1367,42234,00.html

Lai, Henry. "Genetic Effects of Nonionizing Electrogmagnetic Fields." http://www.emfbioeffects.org/images/Lai%20Biblio.doc

Lai, Henry. "Neurological Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation," (Vienna 1998) http://www.mapcruzin.com/radiofrequency/henry_lai2.htm

Lai, Henry. "Neurological Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation Relating to Wireless Communication Technology," (Brussels, 1997). Http://www.mapcruzin.com/radiofrequency/henry_lai1.htm

Laurence, Barbara. "Public Hearing on Cell Tower Policy: Help Prevent Microwave Radiation in Our Neighborhoods 4/29/2003." Http://www.santacruz.indymedia.org/newswire/display/4249/index.php (Link58)

Lawsuits Target Cellphone Industry on Hazards. Http://www.cellular.co.za/news_2001/04282001-lawsuits_target_cellphone_indust.htm (Link75)

Leahy Asks Supreme Court to Hear Towers Case on Behalf of Vermont Citizens and the Vermont Delegation. Http://leahy.senate.gov/press/200012/001205.html

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Legislation. Http://www.emrnetwork.org/legislation/legislation.htm

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Marlboro College, Radiation Experts Discuss Siting Communications Towers near Schools. Http://www.marlboro.edu/news/pr/2001/May/14.html

McGilvray, Annabel. "The Smaller the Phone, the Stronger the Rays." Http://www.cprnews.com/articles.cfm?cat=4&id=91

McKinney, Julianne. "Microwave Harassment and Mind-Control Experimentation." Http://brazilboycott.org/profreedom/g_mckinny.html

McVicar, Nancy. "Feds to Launch $10 million investigation of cell phones, wireless technoligies." Http://www.cprnews.com/articles.cfm?cat=4&id=163

Measuring the Effects of Mobile Phones on Ear, Eye. Http://www.cprnews.com/articles.cfm?cat=4&id=67

Media Newsdesk Archive Dec 2003. Http://www.rnw.nl/realradio/html/medianewsdec03.html

Mercola, Dr. Joseph. "Cell Phones and Cancer." Http://www.mercola.com/1999/archive/cell_phones_and_cancer.htm

Mercola, Dr. Joseph. "Cell Phones to Carry Radiation Labels." Http://www.mercola.com/2000/jul/23/cell_phone_labels.htm

Mercola, Dr. Joseph.  “Children’s Health Expert Panel: Cell Phones & Wi-Fi―Are Children, Fetuses and Fertility at Risk? “, September 21, 2013.


Mercola, Dr. Joseph.  “Heavy Cell Phone Use Can Quadruple Your Risk of Deadly Brain Cancer,” January 06, 2015


Mercola, Dr. Joseph.  “Latest Radio Frequency Study Adds Credibility to Concerns About Cell Phone Hazards”, June 15, 2016.


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__________. "Magazine and Newspaper Articles." http://wave-guide.org/archives/bridlewood/magazine.html

__________. "Government/Official Documents, Reports, Etc." http://wave-guide.org/archives/bridlewood/govrnmnt.html

__________. "Scientific Papers, Reports, Etc." http://wave-guide.org/archives/bridlewood/papers.html

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