APPENDIX I-AE: Pressinger, et al, “Brevard Mosquito Control Pesticides, Environmental & Health Effects Research.”
This appendix is copied from:
Information compiled by
following research was located from the
Background on Brevard's Mosquito Pesticides
Brevard County Mosquito Control is currently using the pesticide "permethrin" in its "mosquito truck" spray program along with the use of the pesticide "dibrom" (naled) in its aerial spray program. The potential health and environmental effects outlined below strongly support the importance of finding alternatives to these pesticides as soon as possible.
Chromosome/Genetic Damage Evident in
SOURCE: Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis, -38, 1994
Researchers at the National Center of Sanidid Ambiental in
As stated by the researchers:
"The effect of permethrin seemed to be dose-dependent. Permethrin induced chromosome and chromatid-type aberrations. The highest frequency of chromosome aberrations, mainly chromosome-type, was induced by 100 ug/ml of permethrin in both cultures... Thus, we can say that permethrin is a clear clastogenic (genotoxic) agent in two different cell systems."
J. Muro, A. Martinez, A. Lopez, M. Diaz and R. Fernandez
Helicopter Application Pesticide Dibrom
SOURCE: Japanese Journal of Cancer Research, 82:157-164, February, 1991
Dichlorvos is an organophosphate pesticide that sometimes goes by the name DDVP. It's chemical name is dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphoric acid ester. Concerns regarding the use of the pesticide Dibrom (naled) in Brevard's mosquito helicopter spray program are warranted as Dichlorvos is found as an ingredient in their primary mosquito control pesticide Dibrom.
Researchers at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences,
While there were no changes seen in test animals exposed to the pesticide when compared to animals not exposed to the pesticide (controls) regarding body weights and survival rates, there were other serious health effects observed. The researchers did find significantly higher cancer rates affecting the pancreas - forestomach - as well as mononuclear cell leukemia in male rats.
The so-called "safety" of dichlorvos may have been based on articles appearing in the journal Mutation Research in which scientists were reported to "down-play" the cancer risk. However, as stated by the scientists in this more recent research paper (pg.158):
"Different views on the carcinogenicity data have been published; most indicate that the earlier studies were inadequate (2 references pg.158) flawed (1 reference pg.158) or showed unequivocal carcinogenicity (2 references pg.158). According to the EPA (using all the available data) "dichlorvos has been classified as a carcinogen based on oncogenic effects in mice and rats (1 reference pg.158)...... Increased incidences of mononuclear cell leukemia was observed in dosed male and female rats. In the male rats the increase in incidence was dose-related and statistically significant. Incidences of multiple fibroademonmas were seen in 9 exposed female rats whereas none were observed in the controls.
In conclusion the researchers stated,
"Dichlorvos caused or was associated with neoplastic responses in rats (pancreas, hematopoietic system, and possibly the mammary gland) and in mice (forestomach)."
As thousands of gallons of this chemical have been sprayed over populated areas in the Brevard community and into the Indian River - the potential for irreversible damage to public health, wildlife and marine life must be considered in light of the above research.
Elevated Brain Damage Found from
Source: Neurochemical Research, 19(5),569-574, 1994
pesticide trichlorfon is a common ingredient in the
mosquito pesticide dibrom (naled)
used here in
In this current study, the chemical trichlorfon was found to cause a "severe reduction" in brain weight and shape. The timing of exposure to the developing offspring appeared to be the key factor in determining neurological damage (known as the "critical brain growth period"). It occurred when the chemical was administered between 40-50 days gestation for the guinea pig which scientists say correlates with the brain growth spurt period for the animal.
The photograph above shows a normal guinea pig brain (left) and the brain of guinea pig that was exposed to the dibrom ingredient trichlorfon (right) during the critical brain growth period.
The powerful neurotoxic nature of this pesticide was further emphasized when the scientists found that these brain abnormalities did not occur when animals were exposed to the other pesticides tested - soman - TOCP and ethyl-trichlorfon.
Scientists concluded by stating they suspect the nervous system abnormality occurred due to direct damage to the DNA at a time when the animal's repair systems are not developed.
CHEM-TOX COMMENT: How many pregnant women
Liver Damage Linked to Mosquito Pesticide Ingredients
Source: Toxicology, 76:69-77, 1992
Another toxic effect of the chemicals trichlorfon and dichlorvos was identified by researchers at the Osaka City Institute of Public Health and Environmental Sciences. Here, the scientists found that trichlorfon and dichlorvos caused damage to liver cells from rats treated for 90 minutes with more than 1mM of the chemicals. Although no significant effect was seen at exposure levels of 0.5mM to control rats exposed to trichlorfon, the scientists did observe 14% liver cell death at 1mM and 20% cell death at 2.0mM. Regarding the other mosquito control pesticide ingredient dichlorvos, it was shown to be considerably more toxic to liver cells than trichlorfon. At 1mM exposure level there was 57% liver cell death and 59% cell death at 2.0mM.
CHEM-TOX COMMENT: As stated in the Surgical Nursing Manual - 70% of the human liver must be damaged before problems appear in routine blood tests. Therefore, it can take many years of exposure to liver toxic chemicals to detect damage. With the information from the above research however, it needs to be considered that a potential does exist for the mosquito pesticides being applied by Brevard's Mosquito Control District to be contributing to accelerated attrition to this vital organ. While the effects would not be detected immediately in healthy individuals, one must consider the elevated harm that could occur to older or sick individuals whose liver function has already reached the 70% damage threshold.
Marine Life Damaged by Pesticide Dibrom
Source: Fish Behavior. Proc. All-Union Science Conference, Nov 20-24, pg. 165, 1989
Research now shows common mosquito control pesticides can cause significant damage to fish throughout our waterways.
Russian scientists studied the growth rates of
Bream (a fish common in
I. L. Golovanova, G.
M. Chuiko, D. F. Pavlov
Tumors were once a rare occurrence
In an article on the increased number of tumors being found on turtles, appearing in the April 21, 1996 Vero Beach, Press Journal, Florida biologist Liew Ehrhart stated pollution is the"one common thread." Dr. Ehrhart went on to say,
"It only crops up in populations in degraded water. In bays, sounds and lagoons that have runoff, either urban or agricultural. In pristine water, they don't have the disease."
How long will this problem last? Apparently it will continue to grow worse as long as we continue to allow pesticides over our lawns - neighborhoods - and families.
Child Leukemia & Aplastic
Anemia after DDVP Exposure
Seven children with bone marrow disorders have
been observed over the past 8 years by physicians at Travis Air Force Base Medical
Drs. Jerry D. Reeves, David A. Driggers, Vincent A Kiley
Other topics to be posted here soon include:
Pesticide Exposure Can Increase
Infections in Humans
Don't Be Misled By
Child Cancer Risks from Pesticides and Chemicals
For example, "sub-toxic" effects documented from pesticide exposure can include the biological impact mentioned previously upon the immune system which in turn can cause an increase in viral and bacterial infections - colds - flu - fever - encephalitis - autoimmune disorders (arthritis) - increased asthma incidence - and even cancer (the immune system's "Natural-Killer-Cells" are a class of immune system cells with a voracious appetite for devouring cancer cells in the body). For more information on how scientists are finding a weakened immune system results in increased child cancers - please visit our Child Cancer Site at http://www.chem-tox.com/cancerchildren
Infertility Risks from Pesticides and Chemicals
Specific sub-toxic effects from pesticides have also been found to occur to the reproductive processes, which many scientists state is why we are seeing so many more cases of infertility today. Exposure to pesticides have been found to result not only in infertility, but have also been found to increase the risk of miscarriage as well as damaging the 65 day sperm development process within the male. For more information on the ability of pesticides and chemicals to damage the reproductive process please visit or Reproductive Toxicology site at - http://www.chem-tox.com/infertility
Neurological Disorders from Pesticides
Specific sub-toxic neurological effects identified from pesticide exposure include - memory and concentration loss - irritability - headaches - problems with balance - reaction time and even increases in depression (for details and references on these health effects please visit our pesticide toxicology site at http://www.chem-tox.com/pesticides.
Child Learning and Behavioral Effects from Pesticides
Specific sub-toxic neurological effects have also been found to occur to the developing offspring during pregnancy whose brain is growing at over 4,000 cells per second beginning in the 4th week of pregnancy. Documented effects from pesticides and other chemicals during this critical brain growth period include - hyperactivity - learning disorders - attention deficit disorder - and aggressive tendencies. Children with learning disabilities have been found to have brain cells that have migrated to the "wrong" parts of the brain (called dysplasia) as well as showing smaller brain cell size and disorganized column patterns. If you would like more information on this topic, please visit our Environmental Reproductive Toxicology site at http://www.chem-tox.com/pregnancy/learning_disabilities.htm
As you can see, "toxicity" is really the least of our worries.