APPENDIX II-AM:Barlow, et al, A Fetal Risk Factor for Parkinsonís Disease, Developmental Neuroscience, v. 26, no. 1 (2003) 11-23.


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Vol. 26, No. 1, 2004   

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Original Paper

A Fetal Risk Factor for Parkinson's Disease
Brian K. Barlowa, Eric K. Richfielda,c, Deborah A. Cory-Slechtab,c, Mona Thiruchelvamb,c

aDepartment of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine,
bDepartment of Environmental Medicine,
cNIEHS Environmental Health Sciences Center, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, N.Y., USA

Address of Corresponding Author

Developmental Neuroscience 2004;26:11-23 (DOI: 10.1159/000080707)

 goto top of page Key Words

  • Maneb
  • Paraquat
  • Parkinson's disease

 goto top of page Abstract

A lack of strong evidence for genetic heritability of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) has focused attention on environmental toxicants in the disease etiology, particularly agrichemicals. PD is associated with advanced age, but it is unclear whether specific neuronal damage could result from insults during development. This study hypothesized that prenatal exposure to pesticides would disrupt the development of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) system and enhance its vulnerability to dopaminergic neurotoxicant exposures later in life. Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were treated on gestational days 10-17 with saline or the pesticides maneb (MB, 1 mg/kg) or paraquat (PQ, 0.3 mg/kg). When offspring were evaluated in adulthood, there were no significant effects of prenatal MB or PQ exposure on locomotor activity. Subsequently, offspring were treated for 8 consecutive days with saline, MB (30 mg/kg), or PQ (5 mg/kg). One week after the last exposure, only males exposed to prenatal MB and adulthood PQ showed significant reductions in locomotor activity (95%) and changes in striatal neurochemistry. Stereological assessment of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and ventral tegmental area correspondingly confirmed selective dopaminergic-neuron loss in SNpc. The lack of changes in other exposure groups suggests a specificity to the sequence of exposures as well as gender specificity. These results suggest that prenatal exposure to MB produces selective, permanent alterations of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system and enhances adult susceptibility to PQ exposure. This study implicates a role for developmental neurotoxicant exposure in the induction of neurodegenerative disorders such as PD.

Copyright © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

 goto top of page Author Contacts

Mona Thiruchelvam, PhD, Department of Environmental and Community Medicine
UMDNJ Robert Wood Johnson Medical School
Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute
170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (USA)
Tel. +1 732 445 8186, Fax +1 732 445 0131, E-Mail








 goto top of page Article Information

Received: December 12, 2003
Accepted: February 17, 2004
Number of Print Pages : 13
Number of Figures : 6, Number of Tables : 0, Number of References : 86